Sunny perch - aquarium fish.
Size up to 20 cm.
Inhabits the waters of North America, as well as in the CIS in the lower reaches of the rivers flowing into the Black Sea.
The male is colored brighter, on the gill cover it has a black spot in the red border. The female has a border usually absent or weakly expressed.
Contained in aquariums with sandy soil, planted with plants with free areas for swimming. May coexist with large but peaceful species. Sunny perch omnivorous.
Water for content: dH from 10 to 20 °; pH 7.0-8.0; t when the content is from 15 to 25 ° C, at a dilution of 2-3 ° C above.
For spawning, the most active pair is taken from the school of fish and deposited in the spawning area of 100–150 liters with a layer of 5–7 cm of large river sand. Water in spawning should be clean, settled. Plants in spawning place optional. Aeration and filtration of water are necessary, since the producers are in the spawning farm for several days.
The percentage of larvae depends on the quality and purity of the water. Producers in spawning can be fed. The male digs a hole in the ground where the female lays eggs. Spawning quite stormy and usually lasts 1-2 hours. After spawning, the female can be removed. The male takes further care of the offspring, he actively cares for caviar and larvae.
The larvae come out after 2 days, after another 5-6 days the fry begin to swim. After that, the male is deposited and begin to feed the fry.
Starter feed - Artemia, rotifers and nauplii.
Fry grow quickly. The female lays 1000 and more eggs. Fish reach sexual maturity after a year. Sunny perch It does not tolerate a decrease in pH less than 6.0, so it is difficult to keep it in aquariums with a tight fit. This is especially true when caring for a large number of fry. When growing fry, daily substitution of 1/3 or at least 1/4 of water is necessary.
In the period of spawning at the Sun Perch, the character changes dramatically. It becomes aggressive and territorial. Each male in a spawning area occupies a certain territory. With its lower lobe and tail fin, it pulls a hole up to 5 cm deep in the ground. The male fiercely guards his nest from other males. Drives away from him all the other fish, including females. If the aquarium is not too large and the nests of several males are close to each other, then fights often occur.
After the construction of the nest, the male begins to push the female to him. He whirls around her tightly, and then they whirl together. At this time, caviar is deposited. The female then swims away, and he continues to guard his nest, like a watchman. A few minutes later, the process of circling with the laying of caviar is repeated. Over a period of several such waltzing sessions, the Sun Perch female lays up to 300 eggs.
Her small caviar is glued to pebbles. After spawning, the male completely cools off to the female, drives her from the nest. Interesting is the process of spawning in the presence of one female and several males. All male individuals build nests, but spawning occurs only in the strongest nest. Just like a Turkish sultan ... After spawning, he cares for caviar.
Strong movements of its fins, it enhances the movement of water in the zone of caviar, thus cleansing the nest from sewage and unfertilized eggs. Larvae hatching occurs after 2-3 days at a water temperature of up to 24 °. The larvae are very small. On the sixth day, fry appear. They leave the nest. The male father makes attempts to return the fry to the nest, but to no avail. It should be deposited from spawning.
Malkov need to be fed live dust. Young Sunny Groupers eat a lot. But they grow slowly and unevenly. Therefore, from the age of two months it is better to sort them into groups by size. Coloring in the color of adult fish fry begin at three months. Full color and similarity with adults appears in young animals at 7-8 months. By the age of one year, Solar Perchs become sexually mature. They can already be propagated.
Conditions of detention
Solar perch very acclimatized in the aquarium. For one pair of individuals need a tank of 50 liters. Washed pebbles in it can serve as a primer. Aquatic plants in the aquarium for this fish, it is desirable to have rooting or pots planted. Otherwise, during spawning, their fish will simply be torn out of the ground.
To feed adult Solar Perch should be a bloodworm and a pipemaker, daphnia and scrape meat. They are suitable and dry food. As for compatibility with other aquarium fish, Solar Okuni get along well with neighbors of the same size with a peace-loving character.
It should be noted that Solar Perches are very unpretentious to the conditions of detention. They are not demanding on the parameters of water. They can live at a temperature of aquarium water up to 30 degrees. Well tolerated and lowering the temperature.
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Glass Bass - Aquarium Fish
Love anatomy? Want to see the structure of the body right through it? Or have you always dreamed of seeing through objects? If so, then there is a fish that will simultaneously satisfy all these needs and desires. Small, exotic and ... absolutely transparent glass perch. Further, it will be about him.
Lovers of aquarium art, this type of fish is well known, but for beginners it will be to its liking for its unusual and exceptional, because it stands out among all the other inhabitants of the aquarium.
It is possible that at first the perch will be lost against the background of brighter and more variegated neighbors, but only until the first detection. Then it's hard to lose sight again. He stands out for its inconspicuous. Contradictory, right? But this is its main plus.
This small exotic fish was brought to Europe at the beginning of the 20th century from Asian countries such as India, Pakistan, Thailand and Bangladesh.
In Russia, it appeared a little later, and until 1941 it was bred in special fish breeding shops of zoo plants.
Glory and popularity among aquarists of the whole world fish owes its absolutely transparent body, through which all the insides and bones are visible.
The body is flat, high and has an unusual diamond shape, the forehead is slightly concave, the teeth are small, the bite is abnormal, that is, the lower jaw is pushed forward.
The dorsal fin consists of two parts: the first is triangular and pointed, the second is long and rounded. The anal fin is symmetrical in shape to the second part of the dorsal. The tail cut is pretty deep.
How to distinguish male and female
The gender of an individual can be determined by the shape of the air bubble visible through the transparent skin of the fish:
- in males it is a little pointed,
- females more rounded.
On the side there are 5 transverse bands, which are formed by black spots.
The girls are painted more modestly and mostly have a silver-steel shade of scales.
In nature, fish grow up to 8 cm in length, but in the aquarium they reach only 5 cm.
Marketing move. Caution
Many sellers are capable of anything to sell inconspicuous goods. For the sake of profit, they are ready to go to great lengths, caring little about the health and longevity of the aquarium fish. So, some merchants paint animals to make them look even more unusual.
On the Bird Market, you can often find perch with multicolored bright stripes on the back and other parts of the body. And the colors are chosen with unnatural intensity for nature: bright green, purple, juicy red or orange from a series of pluck eyes. The brighter the better! Seasoned aquarists are not fooled by this marketing ploy, but beginners can easily get caught.It is worth remembering that any staining of living fish is a chemical and artificial process associated with the piercing of the thin skin with a needle, and any violation of the integrity of the integument adversely affects the health and health of the pet, not to mention the introduction of multi-colored chemicals.
Over time, the paint will still fade and will be removed by the immune system. Such a decorated fish does not live for a long time, and instead of 2-3 years (normal life expectancy in aquarium conditions) it will last 2 months. If you do not want your purchase to turn into disappointment, do not purchase a fuchsia-colored glass perch. And remember that any natural paint is better than bright artificial.
Conditions of detention
Another indisputable plus of glass perch is its unpretentiousness and peacefulness. It is equally well tolerated by fresh or slightly salted water, so if he gets the sea neighbors, the perch can easily adapt to them.
For the content of glass perch can withstand the following parameters:
- aquarium with a volume of 50 liters,
- water temperature should be 22-26 ° C, gH 8-20, pH 7-8.5,
- You can add salt in the calculation of 3-4 Art. l 10 liters of fluid.
Water should be old, that is, settled for a week. Therefore, you need to take care of the next batch with each replacement.
Filtration and aeration is also an important condition. In the wild, glass perches prefer the middle and upper layers of water bodies, they will not like the gloom and dusk in their new home. Therefore, additional lighting aquarium will not be superfluous, and even better to put it so that sunlight falls directly on it.
Compatibility with other fish
By its nature, the perch is a schooling fish, therefore in the aquarium it is better to keep at the same time about 10 individuals. So they feel more confident and safe. Peaceful nature allows the fish to get along with any inhabitants of the aquarium, except for aggressive and predatory representatives of the fauna.
Ideal freshwater neighbors will be
- bull bees,
- Nannakaras and rasbory,
- and the sea, preferring salted water, will be guppies and mollies.
Making a perch aquarium
As a primer, in order to emphasize the unusual natural beauty of the glass window, dark river sand or fine polished gravel with logs, stones or artificial houses placed on it are optimally suited.
There should also be a lot of plants. Thick green plantings of the aquarium serve as fish not only as a shelter, but also as a place for spawning.
And there should be a lot of such nooks, because during the mating period the males, first of all, choose a place for the future laying of caviar (most often it is a bush of some overgrown small-leaved plant) and zealously protect it from the invasion of other males.
If the female gets in his field of view, the perch begins its marriage dances, inviting it to the bush for spawning. The ratio of females and males in the pack should be 1: 2.
Problems with feeding should not occur, as the perch is unpretentious in food. In nature, he eats live food, but in the aquarium he can eat artificial. However, be prepared that such a diet may lead to infertility of the fish.
To avoid this, try to give live or frozen food. A pet will enjoy eating with a moth, a pipe maker, a carriage, or a daphnia, and the cyclops will not refuse either. Feed should be given in small portions throughout the day, but at least 3 times a week.
Individuals reach sexual maturity by the age of six months. Having chosen a secluded place for spawning and having invited a female there, the male will violate reproduction.
The mating period lasts for 3-4 days, during which the female spawns, quickly fertilized by the male. At one time, the female can lay up to 6 eggs, and in a total of up to 200 pieces.
After fertilization, parents can be removed from the aquarium or left, since they do not pose a danger to eggs and newborn fry.
To stimulate spawning, you can add 12 liters of water to 2 tsp. salt, increase its temperature by 2-3 degrees and add ¼ part of fresh distilled water.
The incubation period lasts two or three days, after which the fry are already beginning to swim. It is then that they need to be given rotifers or nauplias of diaptomus. At fourteen days of age, the young should be transferred to Cyclops nauplius and small diaptomus.The first 2 weeks of life of the fry are the most important. If it is possible to feed them during this period, then it will be easier later, and the issue of food will be solved by itself.
During feeding, the young should be set in motion by the flow of water. Food should always be in the water, so you need to give it in small portions during the day.
By the first three months of life, fry appear first sexual characteristics.
"Cheap and angry!" - the glass perch motto. Very unpretentious and calm pet. Among the inhabitants of the aquarium will always be peace and quiet. An ideal start for a novice aquarist.
Glass Bass, Chanda ranga
Glass bass (Chanda ranga) is very popular with aquarists because of its spectacular and exceptional appearance, incredible endurance and ease of care. Under natural conditions, it lives in fresh and brackish water bodies, both standing and slowly flowing, of South and Southeast Asia.
Characteristics of the species
This amazing fish got its name because of its unusual appearance. Her body is so transparent that the structure of the skeleton and the digestive organs are visible. This is especially pronounced in young individuals. With age, the males acquire an orange-golden color with a bright blue border around the edge of the fins. The swimming bladder is elongated, and in females with a silvery color, it is rounded. These fish look most effectively against a dark background of the aquarium in reflected light.
The body of the perch is high, slightly diamond-shaped and flat on the sides. In nature, glass perch reaches sizes 7-8 cm, while home copies do not grow by more than 5-6 cm. The duration of the "aquarium life" is approximately 5 years.
In an aquarium, it is better to keep perches in flocks of 8-12 individuals., because by virtue of sufficient modesty, these fish in packs feel most comfortable. Together with perches in the aquarium it is recommended to release fish of the same non-aggressive breeds. For one pack, a water volume of about 100 liters is required. The lighting should be bright enough, the bottom of the aquarium lined with large sandy soil.
Glass perch is very sensitive to a new aquarium, so it can be released into the reservoir no earlier than 3 weeks before the optimal parameters are established. The temperature should be in the range of 22-28 degrees, hardness - 8-18, pH - 7.0-8.0, active filtration and strong aeration of water with a volume change of no more than 1/10 per week is necessary.
These cute fish are predators by nature, therefore they actively eat small live food:
- grindal worms
Dry food is perceived without enthusiasm. In addition, this type of food perch need to be fed very carefully, because it can cause infertility. Feed must be varied and abundant.
Very voracious fry. Feeding for newborns is particularly important in the first two weeks. The ideal starting food is the smallest larvae of cyclops and diptomuses, as well as ciliates - slippers. The smaller the food, the less likely the gluttonous fry will suffocate, swallowing an inordinate amount of food.
The individual reaches sexual maturity at the age of six months. During this period, the males begin to separate from the flock and settle in the bushes of small-leaved plants. Each male protects his territory from other males, while at the same time welcoming inviting females to spawn.
The whole cycle of spawning lasts four days. During this time, a pair of fish spawns several times. Each male postponed by the male immediately fertilizes. The total number of fertilized eggs reaches 200-300 pieces.
In the perch kingdom, everything happens at an accelerated pace: the incubation period for the hatching of the larvae from caviar is a little more than a day, and they begin to swim already on the second or third day.
Adult males usually do not touch the eggs and larvae, they simply do not have enough time for this while performing the duties of a guard of their range. But females with quite visible pleasure eat their offspring, therefore, soon after spawning, adults need to be removed from fry.
The fry in an aquarium often get boneosis, so it is necessary to daily remove the remains of food and waste from the bottom, as well as to regulate changes in water temperature.
Glass perch - a crystal shard in an aquarium
The Indian glass perch comes from the genus Khanda of the centropomov or Robal family, inhabiting fresh and brackish, slow-flowing water bodies of Cambodia, Thailand, Nepal, Burma, and India. Fish gained popularity in aquariums as a peaceful creature with a remarkable appearance. The content of this perch at home is amenable to lovers of different experiences.
The fish has a diamond-shaped high body, compressed on the sides. This perch owes its name to a unique natural color. Его прозрачное насквозь тело отливает серебристым тоном, высвечивая внутренние органы и позвоночник. Самцы окрашены в желто-зеленоватые оттенки с темными поперечными полосами и окантованными голубым цветом плавниками. А окрас самок обыкновенный серебристый без каймы на плавниках.The pectoral fins of the fish are reddish, and in some representatives a lilac stripe stretches from the gill cover to the base of the tail. The spine of the fish consists of 25 vertebrae, on the abdomen and back there are rays. In males, the swim bladder is pointed, in females it is rounded.
The forehead is concave, so the lower jaw with small teeth protrudes forward. The dorsal fin is divided into 2 parts, the anterior higher and triangular in shape, while the posterior fin is more rounded. From below, the anal fin repeats, as in a mirror image, the posterior part of the dorsal fin. The tail fin has a deep incision, resembling a mermaid tail. In nature, glass perches reach 8 cm, and in aquariums up to 5 cm. They live for 2-3 years with quality care.
By the nature of the fish peace-loving, but fearful. Experiencing stress in a densely populated aquarium. Therefore, its content is optimal in the species aquarium. The fish keeps on any water levels, it can be stationary for a long time, and then abruptly make sudden movements. To observe the behavior of these perches, it is better to take from 8 pieces of fish and place in a container with a minimum number of plants and free swimming space. With enough space, perch males can establish personal territories and wait for females.
These fish contain in the tank from 50 liters and from 60 cm. Water parameters: acidity 7-8, temperature 22-26 ° С, hardness 9-19 °. High-quality filtration, aeration and water change in small portions weekly. The fish is sensitive to changes in water parameters, therefore its constant content in clean water is important. Perch like hard and slightly alkaline water with the addition of sea salt.
For soil it is better to choose sand or dark fine gravel. This fish loves bright lighting, it is important to place the aquarium close to the light source. Plants need to be planted thickly, they are selected for resistance to salt water and planted in pots. Vallisneria, whipweed, Javanese moss, ferns will do. Fishes need shelters, snags, caves. As decorations you can lay out mangrove roots and large stones.
In nature, this fish feeds on worms, insects and their larvae, crustaceans. In aquarium conditions, with appetite, it eats live food in the form of bloodworms, daphnia, cortex, cyclops, enhitreus and small crustaceans. Also uses frozen food, but dry eats reluctantly. Feed them in small doses from 3 times a week.
Glass perch matured by 4-6 months. Breeding fish is better to postpone for the rainy season - a period of early spring or late autumn, when the starter feed for fry will appear in the form of nauplius diptus. Otherwise, there will be difficulties with raising offspring. For one pair of producers, spawning from 50 cm is taken, for group spawning from 80 cm. Floating plants or pots with small-leaved plants are laid out, perlon threads are also suitable.
One male is taken from 2 females. 2-3 months before the start of reproduction, you need to add salt to water - 1 teaspoon per 6 liters. Also raise the temperature by 2-3 degrees and add fresh distilled water. Spawning occurs in the morning, so it is necessary to ensure the fish access to the morning sunlight. Usually it turns out about 200 eggs, which the female throws by 6-10 pieces. In order to avoid caviar exposure to a fungus, it is recommended to lower a weak methylene blue solution into the aquarium. Caviar is attached to a different surface: plants, snags and other objects. Then the producers are removed to another aquarium, although these fish are not prone to cannibalism.
The incubation period lasts up to 3-4 days, then fry appear, growing up to 1.5 cm by 3 months. Juveniles are painted in silver color, holding a flock, but as the groups grow, they disintegrate. After 3-4 days, the fry can freely eat the nauplia of diptomus, rotifers and cyclops. However, these fish are not very active, so feeding is done in small portions during the day so that the fry can always find food in the aquarium.
When growing fry in an aquarium, water is added by a drip method, providing constant illumination and aeration. You can not change the temperature regime, why the fry may die. If necessary, clean the tank, you can turn on the side of the lamp, to the light of which the fish will gather and allow you to get out of the other side of the aquarium.
The content of glass perches is optimal with its congeners. You should not combine them in an aquarium with aggressive or larger neighbors. Calm and peaceful fish such as corridors, mollies, guppies, tetras and rasbor will do.
There are several species of fish related to Indian glass perch, which can be confused with it because of their transparent appearance. Do not buy multi-colored individuals subjected to artificial injections of dyes that cause irreparable harm to their health. This fish is like a piece of shiny glass shard, its presence will certainly become a bright attraction of the aquarium.
Order, family: central arch.
Comfortable water temperature: 15 -25 ° C.
Aggressiveness: not aggressive 40%.
Compatibility: with large, non-predatory fish species.
Inhabits the waters of North America, as well as in the CIS.
Size up to 40 cm., In Ukraine up to 20 cm.
Color: back greenish-olive, sides with orange spots and dark transverse stripes, belly orange-yellow. The body, the head are sprinkled with green and red spots, the fins are yellow. Tail fin with a small notch, dorsal long. The male is colored brighter, has a black spot on the gills. In the female, the edging is usually absent or weakly expressed.
Fish contain in aquariums with sandy soil and vegetation, with free areas for swimming.
It can coexist with large, non-predatory fish species.
Recommended water parameters for the content: dH from 10 to 20 °, pH 7.0-8.0, temp. 15 -25 ° C.
Feeding aquarium fish must be correct: balanced, diverse. This fundamental rule is the key to successful keeping of any fish, be it guppies or astronotuses. Article "How and how much to feed aquarium fish" talks in detail about this, it outlines the basic principles of the diet and feeding regime of fish.
In this article, we note the most important thing - feeding fish should not be monotonous; both dry and live food should be included in the diet. In addition, you need to take into account the gastronomic preferences of a particular fish and, depending on this, include in its diet ration either with the highest protein content or vice versa with vegetable ingredients.
Popular and popular feed for fish, of course, are dry food. For example, hourly and everywhere can be found on the aquarium shelves of food company "Tetra" - the leader of the Russian market, in fact, the range of feeds of this company is striking. In the "gastronomic arsenal" of Tetra are included as individual feeds for a certain type of fish: for goldfish, for cichlids, for loricarids, guppies, labyrinths, arovan, discus, etc. Also, Tetra has developed specialized foods, for example, for enhancing color, fortified or for feeding fry. Detailed information on all Tetra feeds, you can find on the official website of the company - here.
It should be noted that when buying any dry food, you should pay attention to the date of its production and shelf life, try not to buy food by weight, and also keep the food in a closed state - this will help avoid the development of pathogenic flora in it.