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How to breed goldfish

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Reproduction and breeding of goldfish


Reproduction and breeding of goldfish

in aquarium

Goldfish is one of the most ancient aquarium fish. Their story begins with the first century of our Era and Ancient China. Even then, the emperors of the East and Buddhist monks began to maintain, breed and select goldfish.

Actually, therefore, at present there are a great many aquarium goldfish, and their cost can vary from 2 dollars to several thousand US.

So, if you want to feel like a true goldfish breeder, emperor or Buddhist monk, then this article is for you!


Breeding or breeding goldfish, is not a difficult task.

However, goldfish are not guppies and in order to get offspring you still have to work hard and be patient. In addition, you need to have a sufficient number of aquariums or ponds.


You can't get off with one aquarium!

Goldfish breed independently, without any hormonal injections or without creating too specific conditions. Actual, good maintenance and proper feeding is the criterion and incentive for spawning producers. All types of goldfish can spawn in aquariums of a small volume of 30 liters. However, better results can be achieved in larger aquariums or in ponds.

Spawning of goldfish can occur at a temperature of 16 degrees Celsius, but it is better to maintain the temperature of the aquarium water at a level of 22-24 degrees Celsius. After replanting manufacturers increase the temperature by 2 degrees. The water level in the spawning pond should be 20-25 centimeters, the water should often be replaced by fresh and purged.

Unlike many other spawning aquariums, spawning for goldfish should be well consecrated all light day. If it is a pond, then the sunlight should be diffused, and the pond should be equipped with shelters in the form of floating plants.

Producers are planted in a spawning aquarium in the ratio of 1 female to 2-3 males and richly fed with live food (bloodworms, earthworms, daphnia, ground meat with bread, etc.). At the same time they try to select manufacturers based on their size. Especially females - the bigger they are, the more eggs they sweep out. And vice versa - small females toss less eggs. They equip an aquarium with vegetation (such as a combo, riccia, duckweed, a peristist, etc.), and do not carpe the bottom of the aquarium - on a clean bottom the eggs retain and do not die, but some aquarists set up a separate grid. Sexual maturity in fish comes to a year of life. In this case, the males appear on the gills white bumps and the so-called "saw" on the front paired fins, and the females are growing stout with caviar, their body is bent. For more information, see: HOW TO DETERMINE THE FLOOR OF A GOLDEN FISH: A male and a female!

A female matured for breeding emits a special substance that has a characteristic odor and is particularly concentrated in the genital organs. Actually, this smell attracts males and is a signal of a female's readiness for reproduction. Under the influence of this secretion males begin to swim for females.

Under pond conditions, it is recommended to perform the above spawning manipulations in March – April, with the expectation that spawning will begin in May – June. It is believed that this is the most prosperous time for the successful ripening of caviar. In addition, at this time it is easier to provide the eggs and fry with the necessary comfort.

If the courtship of the males began earlier than March - April and the spawning should be delayed, the producers are seated and also the water temperature is lowered to the desired period (period).

The peak of reproduction of goldfish is accompanied by violent courtship of the males - they chase the female around the reservoir, and on the day of spawning, these courtships look like a frank pursuit.

Taking into account such features, the spawning aquarium is equipped with soft aquarium plants and not sharp decor (it is better without it at all). Otherwise, the fishes will sweep, and their fins will be torn after spawning.

The spawning begins with the first rays of the sun and lasts 6 hours. Spawning gold can every month until October. During one spawning, the female can sweep up to 3000 eggs. In the "home" spawning of goldfish can sometimes occur continuously - year-round. However, this leads to the exhaustion of manufacturers, and in this case they should be given rest, seated in different aquariums.

Photo Caviar Goldfish

Caviar ejection occurs gradually. - the female driven by the males touches the vegetation or the walls of the aquarium and releases 10-30 eggs, which the males immediately fertilize - watering the eggs with milt.

Then, sticky caviar falls to the bottom or sticks to the plants.

Eggs on the first day are slightly orange and slightly flattened, the diameter of eggs is up to 1.5 millimeters. On the third day, the eggs are straightened and discolored, in connection with which they are difficult to detect.

Immediately after spawning, the producers are removed from the spawning tank, otherwise the offspring will be eaten.

The water level in spawning caviar is reduced to 10-15 centimeters and protected from overheating and excessive sunlight (if it is a pond). Aquarium intensively aerated.

The appearance of fry from caviar depends on the water temperature. At a water temperature of 22-24 degrees Celsius - the incubation period is 4-5 days, but at a temperature of 14 degrees Celsius it can reach 7-8 days.

On the second day after the appearance of the young in the aquarium, it is recommended to launch snails (for example, coils) so that they eat the dead and not fertilized eggs. You can carefully assemble yourself, but it is more difficult than it seems. It is very important not to kill the young. At the same time, leaving the dead calf is fraught with - live larvae do not tolerate "dirt" and can get sick.

Young goldfish in the first days is weak and harmless, in fact it looks like a reed with eyes and a yolk vesicle in the middle (the yolk bubble is necessary for obtaining nutrients in the first days of life). Fry move in spurts and can stick to the stop.

After about 2-3 days, they begin to blithely float around the reservoir, and from this point on, the young need to be fed with starter feed: live dust, the finest alga, and other finely ground to feed dust. After 2 weeks, you can give larger feed. At the age of one month, juveniles are capable of taking small bloodworms. As a starter feed, they also use egg yolk finely ground in water, as well as the soaked oatmeal grated in the dust. The fry are fed abundantly, but in portions - little by little but often.

photo larva Golden Fish
1 day

We can recommend the following feed for young goldfish.

JBL GoldPearls mini is premium class granules, packaged in 100 ml.

It has a special recipe ideal for young fish. The diameter of the granulated feed 1-2 mm. Contains spirulina and carotenoids, which contribute to the development of good fish color, contain proteins (10%) from wheat germ, fatty acids.

After two weeks the fry are planted in a 30 liter aquarium at the rate of 250 fry per aquarium. Aquariums flush or replace water frequently. Without purging, it is recommended that 120 fry be planted per aquarium. So they contain up to 2 months of age, gradually sorting by size and reducing their number. Fry are caught not with a net, but with a saucer or other utensils. So they are easier to get and count.


Photo spawning hotbed for goldfish

Sorting carried out on the principle of rejection. Harvested juveniles with defects, juveniles lagging behind in growth, etc. In the end, get pedigree goldfish.

Defective and non-standard young, unfortunately kill. First, because it, as a rule, does not survive itself, and secondly, even if it survives, nothing good comes out of it. With its further content, you risk getting outbred offspring "bastards", but if you go further, then the fish just degenerate into goldfish.

At first, the scaled juveniles of goldfish have a silver-gray color, like the progenitor of the goldfish. Coloring appears only at the age of 3-5 months. To improve the brightness of the fish color, it is recommended that "sunbathing" light should be diffused. In an artificial reservoir, no shading is necessary, on the contrary, the aquarium is intensively illuminated with lamps. It is worth noting that the color of goldfish can vary in fact a lifetime.

Scaleless fry do not pass the aforementioned period of silver color and already at two weeks of age begin to turn into their final color.

Juveniles of goldfish are very capricious and prone to disease. To avoid mortality of offspring, you should regularly monitor the cleanliness of the aquarium, aeration and filtration. Constantly monitor the population - do not forget to settle as they grow.

When breeding goldfish need to strictly observe the species crossing. All goldfish can interbreed with each other (for example, veil tails with comets).

photo whitebait goldfish
1 month However, this will lead to degeneration and out-of-curry scrofula.

Summing up, you can make a short list of what you need for breeding goldfish:

- one-year-old males: 1 female, 2-3 males.

- aquariums: the main from 150 liters, spawning from 30 liters, aquarium for youngsters; (aquariums should be illuminated).

- aquarium soft-leaved plants;

- of course: aeration, filtration, thermostat;

- feed for fry;

- improvised aquarium equipment;

- suction water;

If you still have questions, you can ask them to our expert on fish breeding Vitaly Chernyavsky, HERE!

fanfishka.ru

Goldfish - breeding

Goldfish kept in aquarium in good conditions become ready for breeding at about the age of one year. By this time, the goldfish male acquires small growths that appear on the anterior pectoral fins, and the female has a more prominent abdomen.

Keeping and breeding goldfish

For breeding goldfish in the aquarium should be one female and two or three males. The optimum volume of the aquarium is 2-3 buckets, and the water temperature in it is -22-24 ° C. Sand at the bottom of the aquarium is undesirable, since without it the eggs will be better preserved. But the small-leaved plants must be present: ellodey, peristristis, fontinaris or others. An aquarium in which goldfish will spawn should be illuminated for 24 hours by the sun and an electric lamp.

In spring, young male fish begin to stalk females. The optimal spawning period for goldfish is May-June. Therefore, if you notice that the fish are ready to spawn before the beginning of April, they should be seated in different containers. To delay spawning, you can reduce the temperature of the aquarium water. Before spawning goldfish need to be fed with bloodworms, daphnia, and earthworm.

On the eve of spawning, the males begin to actively chase the female. This activity increases and goes into violent pursuit on the day of spawning. Spawning goldfish lasts about 5-6 hours. The female, swimming between the plants, spawns, and the males fertilize her. Sticky eggs stick to the surface of underwater plants. Initially very small, their diameter is only 1.5 mm. The color of the eggs is at first amber, but then they turn pale, and it becomes quite difficult to look at them.

After spawning, the fish should be transplanted into another container, as they can eat eggs. From 4-5 days fry will begin to hatch. For their better development, you can reduce the water level in the aquarium. In order to destroy unfertilized eggs, launch snails into the aquarium.

How to determine the sex of the Goldfish - male or female


HOW TO DETERMINE THE FLOOR OF THE GOLDEN FISH: THE MALE BABY AND THE CABLE!

Everyone wants to know the sex of their goldfish, unless of course the goldfish are not intended solely for decorative purposes. Real goldfish fans usually want to get offspring from them, and here the definition of sex is of particular importance. There are several ways to determine the sex of goldfish.

During the spawning period, males of goldfish are easier to identify than females. Males develop tubercles or white bumps along pectoral fins and gill covers. In addition, males form dented teeth, the so-called "saw", on the male front fins. Females become slightly asymmetric, especially in the abdomen. They look bloated.


Photos of the structure of a goldfish

Photo of a goldfish male
In the photo clearly visible tubercles casting the Golden male from the female.

At the end of the spawning period and after several spawning spawns in some males, the thoracic region becomes rigid. It is rather difficult to determine this state, therefore, those who are not able to do this can be comforted by the realization that not many can distinguish a goldfish female from a male.

Here are some more ways to determine the sex of a goldfish, but even they are useless, if there is no fish for at least a year*, that is, if the fish has not reached puberty.

1. Males have an outgrowth extending through the posterior part of the ventral fin to the anus. In females, this growth is either completely absent or much smaller.

2. In females, the area between the ventral and anal fins is soft, and in males it is hard.

3. Although it is difficult to see, but the anus of females is round and convex, while the anus of males is thinner and concave.

4. The male's abdominal fins are pointed, and the female's fins are round and shorter.

5. The color of the females is brighter and they are more active. This method will undoubtedly help distinguish the female.

6. You can run the female goldfish in the aquarium and watch the reaction of the other goldfish. Males will swim to a new fish, and females will not show interest.


Here is another photo of males and females of goldfish


photo male goldfish Orande male goldfish telescope

photo of a female telescope goldfish

photo of a female goldfish Vualehvost

photo male and female goldfish Koi carps
Useful video, how to determine the sex of a goldfish - male or female, boy or girl :)

* Do not be surprised if in the pet store when buying goldfish, give your question to the male and the female, you will be told that this is not possible! Sex differences in the family of goldfish appear only with the onset of sexual maturity, i.e. after 1 year.

Neon fish: content, compatibility, reproduction, species, photo-video review



Neon content, compatibility, reproduction, species, photo-video review Neons are one of the most popular aquarium fish. These small shiny fish have long won the hearts of aquarists and have taken their deserved place among such mini-fish like guppies, swordtails and tetras.
Neon received such recognition due to its unpretentiousness, compactness and of course due to the neon coloring of the body.

Latin name: Paracheirodon

Detachment, family: carp-shaped, haracin
(on Lat. Characidae).
Comfortable water temperature: 18-24 ° C
(for manufacturers up to 22 ° C)
"Acidity" Ph:
5,5 - 8°.
(for future manufacturers pH up to 6.8 °)
Stiffness dH:5-20° .
(for future manufacturers - dH to 10 °)
Aggressiveness: not aggressive 0%.
The complexity of the content: easy

Neon Compatibility: non-aggressive, peaceful fish (neons, tetras, swordtails, petsyli, ornatus, pulchera, lanterns).
Not compatible: Neon can not be kept with large, aggressive fish: tsikhly, barbs, large catfish, goldfish, Labe, gourami.
How many live: The life of neon depends directly on the temperature of the aquarium water in which they are contained: 18 ° C - 4 years, 22 ° C - 3 years, 27 ° C - 1.5 years. As can be seen with increasing temperature, the biorhythm of life of neons also increases. That is why they, unlike many other aquarium fish, can and should even be kept in “cool” water. Find out how much other fish live IN THIS ARTICLE!
Minimum aquarium for neon content: from 10 liters, in such an aquarium you can put 4 neons. Neonchiki are schooling fish and therefore it is recommended to keep them in larger aquariums. For information on how much neon can be kept in the X aquarium, see HERE (at the bottom of the article there are links to aquariums of all volumes).

Requirements for care and conditions of neon

- neon necessarily need aeration and filtration, weekly water changes up to 1/3 of the volume of aquarium water.
- it is not necessary to cover the aquarium, although the fish are mobile, they do not jump out of the pond.
- lighting should be moderate. The aquarium is equipped with shading areas, which is achieved with the help of thickets of living plants, as well as with the help of floating plants.
- registration of an aquarium, for your taste and color: stones, grottoes, snags, other shelters. In the aquarium must be provided an open space for swimming.
Feeding and dieting neon: In principle, the fish are omnivores and are not whimsical to feed. We are happy to eat dry, live food and substitutes. But, like many aquarium fish, neons love live food: bloodworms, Artemia, choke, Cyclops, Daphnia. Neon food is taken from the surface of the water or in its thickness. Food that has fallen to the bottom may remain intact. Therefore, the fish should be fed in portions, so that the feed does not have time to fall to the bottom.

Feeding any aquarium fish should be correct: balanced, varied. This fundamental rule is the key to successful keeping of any fish, be it guppies or astronotuses. Article "How and how much to feed aquarium fish" talks in detail about this, it outlines the basic principles of the diet and feeding regime of fish.

In this article, we note the most important thing - feeding fish should not be monotonous; both dry and live food should be included in the diet. In addition, you need to take into account the gastronomic preferences of a particular fish and, depending on this, include in its diet ration either with the highest protein content or vice versa with vegetable ingredients.

Popular and popular feed for fish, of course, are dry food. For example, hourly and everywhere can be found on the aquarium shelves of food company "Tetra" - the leader of the Russian market, in fact, the range of feeds of this company is striking. In the "gastronomic arsenal" of Tetra are included as individual feeds for a certain type of fish: for goldfish, for cichlids, for loricarids, guppies, labyrinths, arovan, discus, etc. Also, Tetra has developed specialized foods, for example, for enhancing color, fortified or for feeding fry. Detailed information on all Tetra feeds, you can find on the official website of the company - here.

It should be noted that when buying any dry food, you should pay attention to the date of its production and shelf life, try not to buy food by weight, and also keep the food in a closed state - this will help avoid the development of pathogenic flora in it.

HISTORY OF NEONS

The homeland and natural habitat of neons are the streams and rivers of South America: Peru, Colombia, Brazil. Rivers - top p. The Amazons, from a certain São Paulo de Olivenza to Iquitos, live in the r. Putumayo and r. Purus do Boca do Tapaua. As you can see, the natural habitat of neon is very distant and mysterious. That is why the chronicle of these fish in the aquarium world is quite young. The starting point of neon as aquarium fish is the year 1935, when Frenchman A. Rabo discovered these neon fish in the waters of the river Putumayo (Eastern Peru).

Discoverer Auguste Rabo He was delighted and surprised by the beauty of the red-blue fish found, which prompted him to bring several individuals to the United States of America and to Old Europe. In a year - 1936 This species of extraordinary fish was studied and described by the American ichthyologist S. Myers. The second homeland of neon is Germany. This is due to the fact that it was the Germans who managed to first dissolve neons in artificial conditions. At that time - it was a sensation, since neither in the United States of America, nor in France did the fish breed in artificial conditions. The German breakthrough in the breeding of neons was caused not so much by the merits of man as by the presence in Germany of very soft water, which neon fish like so much. Description: Neon is a small, nimble fish. In aquarium conditions, males reach sizes up to 3 cm, and females slightly larger - up to 3.5 cm in length.
Neon Color: There are different types of neon and the color of each is different. In general, all neons are united by one thing - a neon strip passing along the whole body, which actually gives a reflection inherent only in these fish. Behavioral features: Neons - peaceful, gregarious, nimble fishes. Fish are great in the aquarium in a group with a large number. Their briskness requires from the aquarium - space, which is so necessary for maneuvers. The corridors (speckled catfish) are considered to be friends and helpers of neons, they do not interfere with the neonas to monitor the purity of the aquarium soil.

Breeding and breeding neon

Initially, I want to say that the reproduction of neons is not very complicated. At least, it does not require special difficult conditions or hormonal injections.

Sexual differences: Males of neons are smaller than females, somewhere about half a centimeter, they are much slimmer than "girls", and their neon side strip has a clear, even shape, without convolutions. In turn, the females are larger than the males, they are more complete "puzatee", the neon strip bends in the middle of the calf. Preparing for spawning: sexual maturation of neons occurs in 6-9 months. For successful breeding "neon parents" initially contain in comfortable conditions, which consist in the presence of a wide aquarium house, in a diverse feeding and comfortable water parameters. Before spawning, males and females are kept separately, fed abundantly with live food for half a month. When living separately, the water temperature is lowered to 19 ° C.
It is believed that the best producers are fish aged 10-12 months. IMPORTANT: strictly observe the recommended parameters of aquarium water and conditions of detention! From the very hard water, the eggs are not fertilized by sperm (the shell does not allow), but from the very bright light - the eggs die! Spawning aquarium arrangement: an aquarium of 40 centimeters in length, the bottom should be without soil, a separator grid should be installed at the bottom, the back and side of the aquarium should be darkened, the substrate should be dark. Water parameters in spawning: level 15 cm, temperature 20-22 ° C, hardness dH up to 2 °, KH 0 °, pH 5.5-6.5 °, lighting only natural. Spawning water is recommended to be disinfected with UV or ozone. Neon spawning: Having prepared an aquarium for spawning, males and females are planted in the afternoon towards the evening in the ratio of 1: 1 or 3 males per 1 female. Usually, fish spawn at dawn the next morning. However, this process may take 3 days. During the spawning period, neons do not feed anything.
Females toss non-sticky eggs at a time from 50 to 200 eggs.
Immediately after spawning my parents, I set them aside, and the spawning dish is darkened (remember the light is destructive for caviar !!!). It is necessary to set aside producers, as they eat fry.
Within four hours after spawning, it is necessary to monitor the roe and, when the eggs appear white, immediately remove them.
The incubation period for neon caviar is approximately 22 hours.

Neon Fry Care

Juveniles of neons begin to swim already on the 4-5 day, until this point the larvae almost without moving and hang in a spawning aquarium.

Malki require mandatory aeration, water temperature 20-22 ° C and daily replacement of 1/10 of the volume of water, the water in the aquarium should be at a level of up to 10 centimeters.
From the moment the fry begin to swim (4-5 days), they must often be fed in portions. As a starter feed, you need to use special feed for young fish. Such food is sold in many pet stores, for example, TETRA MIN Baby and TETRA MIN Junior or SERA MICROGRAN. You can also feed: grinded boiled egg yolk, rotifers and infusoria.

Growing neon fry, should be carefully treated with lighting spawning aquarium. The lighting is gradually increased, 100% - ordinary lighting can be done only after the young become “on their feet”, and this happens by the 1st month of life. Otherwise, the fry will simply lose orientation.

What are ill neons

Fish can get virtually all kinds of contagious and non-infectious diseases. Neons, being small and fragile fish, do not tolerate stress (for example, if they are driven by "bad neighbors"), as well as uncomfortable water parameters and the absence of a schooling lifestyle - which, together and separately, can lead to diseases (for example, ichthyophysis - manke) . Have neons and a disease inherent only to them - plistophorosis or else it is called "neon disease". This infection manifests itself in the form of fading areas on the body of fish - in neons, blue and red stripes fade. The disease is in fact not curable!

photo Plistoforoz "Neon disease" photo ichthyophthyriosis "Manka" neon

USEFUL TIPS:

- neon is better to feed once a day and regularly arrange fasting days (once a week), which in turn will contribute to the health of the fish.
- when making out an aquarium for neons, you should use dark tones of the soil and background.
- a sign of bad health or stress in neons is the blanching of their color, they can fade up to complete graying.
- you should carefully use aquarium preparations containing copper - neons do not tolerate it.

All kinds of neon fish

There are still rare, artificially derived neons: Neon voile
Neon orange or orange

Neon blue or ordinary (Paracheirodon innesi)
Neon Blue (Paracheirodonsimulans)
Neon red (Paracheirodonaxelrodi)
Neon green (Kostelo)
Neon black (Hyphessobryconherbertaxelrodi)
Artificially derived:
Neon Gold (Paracheirodoninnesivar.)
Neon diamond or diamond (Paracheirodon innesi diamond), "albino" form of neon

Neon blue or ordinary (Paracheirodon innesi)

Most popular among neons. These neonchikov amazingly bright color. A beautiful turquoise-blue neon strip runs across the top, and the lower half of the body has a rich red color, the back is grayish-brown, all fins are transparent. Differ from fellow elongated, long body shape. Females of blue neon 4 cm, males - 3.5 cm.
More in detail here: Neon blue or ordinary

Neon blue (Paracheirodon simulans)

Due to the similarity in the name to the blue neon, this kind of neon is lost to aquarists by sight. The progenitors of blue neon are blue and red neon. The fish is distinguished by a long, coy body, the neon strip passes in the middle all over the body. I reach the sizes to 4 cm. More in detail here:Neon blue

Neon red (Paracheirodon axelrodi)

Areola habitat - the Orinoco River and the Rio Negru. These the neons very similar to blue and only slightly different in color. Along the entire body, there are two continuous bands of blue and red neon. It can reach sizes up to 5.5 centimeters.

Neon green

(church)
The back is colored dark green. Throughout the body is a wide strip of dark color, and in it is a neon turquoise blue strip. It can reach sizes up to 3.5 centimeters.
More in detail here: Neon green or costello

Neon black (Hyphessobrycon herbertaxelrodi)

These neons have a long slightly flattened body. Throughout the body passing two stripes, narrow silver at the top, and wide black below.
More in detail here: Black neonNeon gold (Paracheirodon innesi var.)
This is the smallest neon of all representatives. Its maximum size is only 1.5 centimeters in length. Decorated with a golden stripe that stretches throughout the calf.
More in detail here: Neon goldNeon diamond or diamond (Paracheirodon innesi diamond) These fish have no neon strip at all. The diamond look of neons has only a light color and a reddish tail. Reaches the sizes to 3 centimeters. More in detail here: Neon diamond or diamond
Neon veil
A very rare and expensive type of neon, with a characteristic voile shape of fins. Reach up to 4 cm. In length. Content options are standard. Cost 5.4 USD. More in detail here: Neon voile and neon orange
Neon orange or orange


The rarest look! Neon resembles a transparent orange slice. It is the subject of hunting exquisite gourmets of the aquarium world.
Interesting facts about neons
"Neons: a bloody story" As it was already said before, a certain French national, Auguste Rabo, was the first person to become interested in neons. Well, since he was a dashing businessman and was looking for gold in the tropical forests of the Amazon River, he also caught exotic butterflies and collected orchids, again not for idle curiosity, but for further sale - the reflection of neon fish greedily reflected in gold in his insatiable eyes .
Everyone knows that greed and greed do not lead to good because they are included in the list of deadly sins. Rabo paid for it. And it all happened like this:
Auguste Rabo wandered through the Amazon rainforest and picked up the infection - tropical fever. Benefit pumped his local aborigines - Peruvian Indians. Having labeled Rabo in one of the Indian huts, he first saw the neons that were floating in a makeshift dish. It was then that the business idea of ​​Rabo was ripe, as it was making money on these brilliant little fish.
He organized the transportation of fish to the continent, and the poor neonchik was pushed into wooden crates, missed the gaps with resin, and in addition to the fish during transportation, they did not feed anything. However, the neons were tenacious and safely reached the United States of America.
Most of the surviving neon Rabo sent to Germany, and the rest gave fanatic and connoisseur of tropical fish - William Innesi. Remembering the nature of O. Rabo, it should be said that this was done not out of the goodness of his heart, but for the purpose of a complaint - after all, Innes was the publisher of an aquarium magazine and Rabo hoped to publish an article about his mega discovery, with all the ensuing profit consequences ...
The article was published, moreover, Inessi handed over the fish to ichthyologist D. Mayers, who in 1936 published a scientific work describing a new type of fish and named them in honor of Inessi - Paracheirodon innesi.

Reference:
William Thornton Innes (1874 -1969)
- The state of Philadelphia was born in the USA, where he graduated from school. Upon graduation, began to work with his father in publishing. In 1917 he published his first book, "On Goldfish". In 1932 founded his famous magazine "Aquarium", which lasted 35 years. In addition, since 1920, Innes has regularly organized aquarium exhibitions. Also in 1932 published the book "Exotic Aquarium Fish", which was regularly reprinted.
George Myers (1938-1970) - US national: ichthyologist, zoologist and herpetologist, was a professor at Stanford University, from 1942 to 1994. - Professor of the National Museum of Brazil in Rio de Janeiro. So began the neon boom! Employees of the largest aquarium companies have ousted Auguste Raboh, generously and regularly paying him decent sums for the supply of neons. Aquarium dealers hoped to multiply them and thereby return the money spent on Rabo. Yes, it was not there, all the swept up neon caviar died for unknown reasons.
In turn, Rabo, realizing the benefits of his monopoly position, strictly kept the secret of the neon's habitat and secretly left for Amazon for a new batch of fish. This situation lasted for three years until spies of aquarium companies traced Rabo by the Ucayali River, where he was killed. A year later, the delivery of neon fish was arranged without the participation of the deceased.
Neons, what else ?! - Neon is called the initiators of aquarium chemistry. This is due to the fact that for their breeding and obtaining the “desired soft, spawning water” aquarists had to carefully study the hydrochemistry of water, because of which the aquarium case went up to an even higher level.
- Caviar and young neon catastrophically afraid of lighting, from which they inevitably die. Such a malicious joke is played with them by the neon genetic program, which allows the fish to develop only in the twilight, as it happens in the tropical environment of the Amazon River.
- Neons have scales, but under it the skin, which consists of special pigment cells - chromatophore. Actually, they produce from the blood the neon-metallic color of the fish.
- Fish do not emit light, it is only a reflection and refraction of the incident rays of light.
- Not only neons, but also many other inhabitants of the aquarium world can glow with neon. For example, neon goby oceanops (Elacatinus oceanops), the size of which is comparable to neon and is 5 cm.


in the photo is a neon bull - Many lovers of the aquarium world are wondering, why does neonam need such an eye-catching color, is it very dangerous? Until now, there is no scientific explanation for this color of fish. There is only the assumption that they need it to attract a partner in the mating season, as well as to confuse the predator, fooling it when the flock of neons crumbles. Recommended neon literature:
1.Kochetov S. "Neons and small haracinids"
2. Kochetov S. "Characteristic in an aquarium: from neons to piranhas"
The author of the book tells about many species of tropical fish, including neon fish and other small species. From the books you will learn how to prepare an aquarium for neons, their conditions of detention, feeding and breeding.

Beautiful photo review of neon fish

Interesting video with neon


How to breed goldfish

How do goldfish breed?

Mirage

Reproduction of goldfish
The process of breeding goldfish and growing fry is very interesting and time-consuming, requiring certain skills, patience and attention from an aquarist. If an aquarist sets a goal to get and raise fry of a strictly defined breed, he should select in advance producers with characteristics characteristic of the breed and corresponding to accepted standards. If the process itself is interesting, or spawning occurs spontaneously, then, of course, such stringent requirements are not necessary. At the same time, of course, it is not known what quality fish may result from as a result of such "unplanned" spawning, how many obvious marriages there will be and whether the fry will generally inherit any pedigree signs of the parents.
A ready-to-spawn male has small white tubercles (tubercles) on its gill covers, resembling semolina grains. A "signal" to spawn can be a steady increase in temperature by several degrees, often in combination with changes in water parameters for the better (for example, significant, more than 30%, changing water in an aquarium). Frequently, spawning is prompted by the transportation of individuals ready for spawning and their transfer to new housing conditions, especially if the temperature at the new place is higher. External signs of the beginning of spawning are the activity of the male, expressed in the vigorous pursuit of the female and frequent mouth blows to the area of ​​her anus (thus the male induces the female to spawning).
When such signs appear, manufacturers are transplanted into a separate, preferably spacious, aquarium with temperature and water parameters identical to those in the general aquarium. It is good to place in the spawning aquarium thick floating plants (Javanese moss, comforum, nayas). With "unplanned" spawning, the aquarist can only observe its course.
For more information about the goldfish multiplication, read here:
Reproduction of goldfish. A photo
Breeding conditions for goldfish

Gold fish. Content, care, breeding. Aquarium. (part 2).

Fish breeding Gourami Fish breeding Gourami

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