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Aquarium water, parameters: hardness, pH and others


AQUARIUM WATER, PARAMETERS

One of the most important components of the aquarium world is water, as the habitat of aquarium fish and plants.

The parameters of the aquarium water, its characteristics directly affect the well-being of your pets and the state of the plants. It is no secret that dirty, muddy water ruins the fish, spoils the appearance of the aquarium, however, the clear water does not always mean that its composition is perfect.

The main parameters and indicators of the quality of aquarium water are:

- Aquarium water hardness (hD);

- Hydrogen indicator of water "Acidity of aquarium water" (pH);

- Redox potential (rH);

AQUARIUM WATER HARDNESS (hD) - due to the presence of soluble calcium and magnesium salts in water. Their concentration in aquarium water is the GENERAL HARDNESS, which can be divided into TEMPORARY - CARBONATE and PERMANENT - NON-CARBONATE.

The temporary hardness of aquarium water (CN) is the concentration of bicarbonate salts of calcium and magnesium, formed from weak, unstable carbonic acid. Such rigidity can vary during the day. For example, in the daytime, aquarium plants during photosynthesis absorb carbon dioxide that accumulates in the water. If carbon dioxide is not enough for consumption by plants, they will start to produce it from the bicarbonate composition, as a result of which the temporary hardness of the water will decrease.

The constant hardness of aquarium water (GH) is the presence of stable calcium and magnesium salts formed from strong acids — hydrochloric, sulfuric, or nitric.

Water hardness is essential for the life of the aquarium world. Firstly, calcium and magnesium salts are used in the construction of the skeleton and have an impact on the construction of the whole fish organism. For different types of aquarium fish, the indicators of water hardness are different and failure to comply with them can lead to a deterioration of the health of the fish, a violation of the function of reproduction and fertilization of eggs.

The total hardness of the aquarium water is measured in German degrees (hD). 1 ° hD is 10 mg of calcium oxide in 1 liter of water.

Aquarium water with hardness parameters:

from 1 to 4 ° hD - is considered very soft;

from 4 to 8 ° hD - is considered soft;

from 8 to 12 ° hD - medium hardness;

from 12 to 30 ° hD - considered to be very tough;

Most aquarium fish feel comfortable with hardness of 3-15 ° hD.

How to change the rigidity of the aquarium water:

1.) Increase stiffness.

- KH hardness can be increased by adding 1 tsp of baking soda to 50 liters, which will increase the performance by 4 ° dKH.

- 2 teaspoons of calcium carbonate to 50 liters of water will increase at the same time KH and GH by 4 degrees.

- Another measure for a smooth / gradual increase in water hardness is scattering and decorating the aquarium with seashells.

2.) Reducing stiffness (everything is more complicated here):

- use / add distilled water, which is sold in stores;

- use / add rain, snow, melt water from the refrigerator (must be clean, without turbidity and impurities).

- filter the water through an osmotic filter;

- filter water through peat (peat is added to the filter) or into the tank, where water is settled;

- the rigidity of the VF is reduced by boiling water in an enamel pot for 1 hour, followed by settling for 24 hours;

- natural water softeners are fast-growing plants: elodey, rogolodnik, nayas, valisneria.

HOW TO MEASURE the overall hardness of aquarium water at home without any specials. equipment and preparations (sample titration with soap solution):

The peculiarity of this method is that 10 mg of calcium oxide in 1 liter of water is neutralized with 0.1 g. clean soap.

1. 60-72% of household soap is taken, crumbled.

2. In a measuring cup (or other measuring vessel), water is poured (distilled, snowy, water melted from the refrigerator) - then distillate.

3. Soap powder (counted in grams) is added to the water so that it is possible to calculate the portion small in the resulting solution.

4. Pour 0.5 liters of the tested aquarium water into another dish and gradually add portions of the soap solution (0.1 gr.), Shake.

At first, gray flakes and quickly disappearing bubbles appear on the surface of the water. Gradually adding portions of the soap solution, we are waiting for all the calcium and magnesium oxide to contact - stable soap bubbles will appear on the surface of the water with a characteristic rainbow overflow.

This experience is over. Now we count the number of consumed soap portions, multiply them by two (the aquarium water was 0.5 liters, not 1 liter.). The resulting number will be the rigidity of the aquarium water in degrees. For example, 5 servings of soap * 2 = 10 ° hD.

With careful experience, the error can be + -1 ° hD.

When obtaining a stiffness result of more than 12 ° hD, the measurement accuracy decreases, it is recommended that the experiment be re-diluted with aquarium water with 50% distillate, double the result.

Hydrogen indicator of water or "aquarium water acidity" (pH of aquarium water).

Determines the neutral, acidic and alkaline reaction of water at a certain concentration of hydrogen ions.

In chemically pure water, electrolytic dissociation occurs - the decomposition of molecules into hydrogen ions (H +) and hydroxyl (OH-), the number of which in it at 25 ° C is always the same and equals 10-7 g * ion / l. Such water is neutral. The negative logarithm of the concentration of hydrogen ions is conventionally used to designate the pH value and in this case is equal to 7. If there are acids in the water (not chemically pure water), the amount of hydrogen ions will be more than hydroxyl - the water becomes acidic with a lower digital pH. Conversely, hydroxyl ions will dominate in alkaline water and the pH will increase.

Aquarium water with pH parameters:

- from 1 to 3 is called / considered strongly acidic;

- from 3-5 sour;

- from 5-6 slightly acidic;

- 7 neutral;

- 7-8 slightly alkaline;

- 10-14 strongly alkaline;

PH parameters can change during the day, due to the variable concentration of carbon dioxide in aquarium water, which in turn is stabilized by constant aeration.

Sharp pH fluctuations are harmful and painful for aquarium fish and plants. Most aquarium fish prefer a pH of 5.5 to 7.5.

HOW TO CHANGE the pH of aquarium water:

- If it is necessary to lower the pH - acidify the water with peat extract (well, or with special preparations from the Pet ShopJ);

- If you need to increase the pH (strengthen alkalinity) - using baking soda;

MEASURING the pH of aquarium water:

1. In many pet stores sold - testers (litmus paper with phenolphthalein). Actually following the instructions on the package and on the scale, you can determine the pH parameters.

2. There are specials. measuring device - PiAshmeter. For home aquariums is not used (expensive, and why not at all). After all, the main thing is not frequent measurement of pH parameters, but conditions of keeping fish and aquarium. In a well-kept, not overcrowded aquarium, not clogged to the top with plants, with aeration - the pH will always be normal and often it is not necessary to measure.

Redox potential (rH of water, ORP of water).

The essence of the redox process in aquarium water is that all substances in it react with each other. In this case, one substance gives up its electrons and charges positively (oxidizes), and the other acquires electrons and charges negatively (being restored). As a result, a difference in electrical potentials arises between different-sized substances. Simply put: oxidation - this is the reaction of nitrite with oxygen, and recovery - on the contrary, the breakdown of nitrites with the release of oxygen.

The maximum oxidative potential of water is 42rH.

Options:

rH 40-42 - maximum oxidation (pure oxygen);

rH 35 - strong oxidation;

rH 30 - slight oxidation;

rH 25 - weak oxidation;

rH 20 - weak recovery;

rH 15 - slight recovery;

rH 10 - strong recovery;

rH 5-0 - maximum reduction (pure hydrogen);

Almost all aquarium fish and plants feel comfortable with rH 25-35. Some species prefer narrower parameters of this value.

Measured by rH special gauges.

Increase the rH of water by regularly changing the water, leaving it to clean the aquarium, as well as purging the air and using ozone.

SO:

We have learned about the basic parameters of aquarium water, the observance of which will be an absolute guarantee of the health of fish and the beauty of plants.

There are other values ​​/ parameters characterizing aquarium water. However, they are not as significant as hD and pH. To maintain a home aquarium to know and follow them is simply not necessary. As Sherlock Holmes said: "... a sensible person carefully selects what he places in his brain loft."

OPTIMAL PARAMETERS OF AQUAREMOUS WATER (hD of water, pH of water, ORP of water) I ATHERENTLY REACH THE BANAL CARE OF THE AQUARIUM AND FOLLOWING THE RULES OF THE CONTENT OF ITS RESIDENTS: do not make a dormitory out of the aquarium, do not overload it with plants, provide aeration and filtering;


See also:
CHANGE OF WATER IN THE AQUARIUM! WHAT WATER IS NEEDED FOR THE AQUARIUM? How much water should be defended for the aquarium?
Category: Aquarium Articles / EQUIPMENT AND FACILITY AQUARIUM | Views: 23 351 | Date: 5-03-2013, 13:20 | Comments (2) We also recommend reading:
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Water hardness in the aquarium

Very often, having decided to engage in aquarism, lovers carefully choose a tank for a home pond, think through where to place it, what fish and plants to fill. However, they completely forget about the main and most important component of this whole system - water. As a rule, aquariums are filled with the most readily available water, most often tap water. Very few people think about its parameters. And if it thinks, it is only about whether it is suitable for fish. However, plants are no less demanding of water, although they respond more slowly to its quality.

In this article we will touch on one of the important parameters - rigidity. After all, not least it depends on it, whether the aquarium will become as it is conceived or not.

What is water hardness in an aquarium?

It is considered the second most important parameter of water after acidity. It depends on the possibility of keeping and breeding fish and plants. It affects the remaining properties of water.

This parameter is determined by the presence of certain minerals that are dissolved in water. The overall stiffness consists of two parts:

Permanent (GH). It is paramount, as it determines the softness or hardness of the water and the degree of its suitability for the inhabitants of the aquarium. GH determines the concentration of Ca ++ and Mg ++ ions in water. Boiling leads to the destruction of bicarbonates and precipitation of calcium and magnesium. Stiffness, which persists after boiling, is called constant. It is measured in degrees of hardness. And all the tests are issued in them.

Variable or carbonate (KH). It is determined by the concentration of carbonates CO3- and bicarbonate HCO3- in water.

Aquarium water hardness is normal

The value of water hardness in the life of the inhabitants of the home reservoir is great:

  • magnesium and calcium salts are involved in building the skeleton and bone system of fish;
  • in mollusks and crustaceans, they provide the hardness of the shell or shell;
  • stiffness contributes to the normal functioning and development of the genital organs;
  • it affects the success of the growth and development of plants, etc.

Hardness can be of varying degrees of intensity: 0-4 - very soft, 5-8 - soft, 9-16 - medium hardness, 17-32 - hard, 33 or more - very hard. Tap water, as a rule, has a hardness of not more than 20.

The hardness of the water in the aquarium should be within certain limits, usually this range is 3-15 degrees. It is better if for each specific species the indicators will be close to the natural conditions of the native water bodies.

For example,

  • the snails require hard water, since they sink their shells in soft water;
  • viviparous fish will feel good at 10,
  • neon at 6,
  • Sagittarius and fern at 10-14 degrees, etc. This information can be obtained from the recommendations for the care of one or another species.

You also need to take into account that the inhabitants of the aquarium absorb calcium, so its amount in the water will gradually decrease. Maintaining stiffness at the same level is easier if the soil is pebble or coarse sand. And, of course, regular measurements will be required.


How to determine the hardness of the water in the aquarium?

The main methods are:

Chemical reagent Trilon "B"

This is a very accurate method, but its lack of excessive complexity for people who are not very interested in chemistry, and not everyone wants to acquire additional chemical equipment at home.

TDS meter

He is a conductometer, he is a salimeter. The method is very simple. However, this electronic device measures not the hardness itself, but the electrical conductivity of water, from which it is only indirectly possible to judge hardness.

Test strips

They have been specifically designed to measure the hardness of water in aquariums. Simple and easy to use. There is an option where a reagent is added to a specified volume of water and is judged on the stiffness by the changed color. All calculations are made according to the instructions included in the package. The disadvantage of this method is one - it is difficult to buy such kits, as they are rarely on sale.

Laundry soap

This is the most affordable, cheap and accurate method at home. It is based on the property of soap: it is difficult to dissolve in hard water and gives foam with an excess of calcium and magnesium salts.

How research is conducted:

1. Chop soap (1 gram) and gently pour in a small amount of heated distilled water (sold in car shops).

2. Pour the obtained solution into a glass and add distillate so that it reaches a height of 6 cm for 60% and 7 cm for 72% soap. Each centimeter of this solution contains as much soap as is required to bind salts, the amount of which is 1 ° dH in 1 liter of water.

3. A 1 liter jar half filled with water from an aquarium.

4. Pour the prepared solution slightly into it, stirring constantly. First, flakes appear on the surface, and then a steady lather, which indicates that all the salts in the water are bound.

Score result. Count how many centimeters of the solution was poured into water. 1 cm bound in 0, 5 l of water 2 ° dH of salts. That is, if 4 cm is poured, then the rigidity is 8 degrees, etc. If the entire solution is poured, but there is no foam, then the rigidity is higher than 12 degrees. Then dilute the water for the study with distillate twice, repeat the analysis, multiplying the results by two.

The results may have an error of 1-2 degrees, but this is not critical and will not lead to disease or death of the inhabitants of the aquarium.

If the hardness of the water available to the aquarist does not correspond to that which he needs to maintain aquatic inhabitants, then it can be changed. But it should be done smoothly, so as not to cause stress or other problems in pets.

How to increase the water hardness in the aquarium?

1. Mix the aquarium water with tougher.

2. Boil water for about an hour. It is better to take the enameled ware. Next, cool it and carefully drain the two upper parts of the volume. The lower third, rich in calcium salts, should be poured into the aquarium in portions, controlling the rigidity by measurements.

3. Place in the aquarium pieces of seashells, marble or limestone rocks to increase the overall rigidity by 2-4 degrees. The disadvantage of this method is the inability to control the level of rigidity. It is more preferable to filter the water in the aquarium through a layer of crushed marble, reducing or increasing the amount of water passing through the filter.

4. Add baking soda in the amount of 1 tsp. 50 liters of water to increase variable stiffness (KH) by 4 degrees.

5. Add calcium carbonate at the rate of 2 tsp. 50 liters of water to increase the constant (GH) and variable (KH) hardness by 4 degrees.

6. Add a ten percent solution of Ca chloride (available at the pharmacy) and magnesium sulfate (prepare yourself: dissolve 50 g of the bitter salt, obtaining 750 ml of solution) in the same proportions (1 ml each) in water. Stiffness will increase by about 4 degrees.

7. Pour in magnesia in 25% solution (1 ml per 1 liter of water). This will raise the stiffness by 4 degrees.

How to lower the hardness of the water in the aquarium?

It is much more difficult to do. The methods are as follows:

1. Add distilled, thawed or clear rainwater.

2. Boil water, cool it without stirring, and drain from the surface 2 3. Add this top water to the aquarium.

3. Perform freezing. Pour water into a low bowl, for example, in a basin. Put in the cold. After half freezing, punch the ice, pour the unfrozen water, melt the ice. Add the resulting water to the aquarium.

4. Run water through special filters (osmotic and deionization).

5. Filter the water through peat added to an external or internal filter or placed in a bag in a tank with settled water. Pre-peat for the soil is required to boil. In some spawning peat is used as a soil. The yellow tint of water that it gives can be removed by filtration through activated carbon.

6You can add a decoction of alder cones. But its hardness decreases slightly and the composition of the water can change, which is not good in all cases.

7. Use Trilon-B and EDTA according to the instructions.

8. Plant elodeyu, egolipu and rogolnik.

Now you know what the hardness of water in an aquarium is, how important it is for its inhabitants, you have an idea how to measure and change it. We hope that this information will help you in creating your dream aquarium. Good luck!

Water hardness in the aquarium and methods for its normalization

Creating a "underwater world" every aquarist thinks out not only the layout of accessories, but also the composition of the inhabitants, the placement of all the necessary details. And very rarely the thought of how good water will fill the volume of the bowl comes to mind. But it is precisely on this issue that you should seriously consider.

The composition of water, why it is important and for whom

A deep misconception relates to the fact that the quality indicator of the aquarium fluid only affects the fish, but is completely unimportant for algae and other representatives of the flora. Hydrophytes are demanding not only to the composition of the liquid, but also to fill it with oxygen and sunlight. However, when the mobile inhabitants of the aquarium show an almost instantaneous reaction to poor conditions, which is sufficient to establish only by following the behavior of the fish, the plants do not have this possibility. The slow response of algae does not allow to determine the problem immediately.

But what should be the water? As a rule, tap water is poured in, a couple of days separated water. Less often, the cup is filled with pure liquid from artesian wells, springs or reservoirs, where habitat is considered the most suitable for the inhabitants of the home "sea". The owners know little about the characteristics of tap water, and it is on this that the normal functioning of the inhabitants of your aquarium depends.

What is important to know about water:

  • the rate of active reaction is pH;
  • the presence of certain impurities.

It is also important to have the effects of biological components that appear from time to time, which sometimes change and thus affect the characteristics of the water. This also needs to be kept under control.

More on water features

Differing in approximate constancy of the value relative to a particular area, affecting many other characteristics, as well as providing comfortable conditions for all inhabitants of the aquarium. It depends on the presence of calcium and magnesium salts dissolved in a certain volume of water. Measurement is made on a degree scale. It happens:

  • softened or soft;
  • medium hard;
  • tough;
  • overly stiff.

Indicators for the maintenance of aquatic inhabitants often differ, so it is important to choose just such rigidity that will suit all living individuals of the aquarium.

How to influence the level of water hardness

Here are a number of options:

  1. To increase the stiffness will help pieces of marble ounce or a fraction of known limestone, spiked to the ground flooring in the form of crumbs. In particular, natural marble raises soft water to a level of 2-4 degrees. But the subsequent control of stiffness will be difficult, so it is best to make a filter channel of marble crumbs. Water will be supplied through it and it is easier for an aquarist to monitor the level of hardness in the entire volume of the aquarium.
  2. Not bad, you can increase the level of hardness through the enrichment of water with calcium chloride or magnesium sulphate. The usual solution of 10% sold in pharmacies will be quite enough. But for a balance close to natural, it is necessary to enrich the liquid with magnesium sulfate. To prepare it is simple: 50 g of dry sulphate ("bitter" or "British" salt) add 750 ml of water. To 1 liter of water, 1 ml of any of the solutions is added, which raises the level of hardness by 4 degrees. So proceed from these calculations.
  3. Reduce the rigidity will help evaporation. The conditions of an ordinary apartment are not always suitable for the procedure, but distilled water can be bought. But the use of water of such softness is not popular.

If your aquarium plants need water of strictly defined parameters, and there is no possibility to lower the available liquid, do this: the base is distilled water, and calcium chloride or salt in the English will help bring it to the hardness level.

And a little more about water softening options:

  1. Boiling. This is a great way to reduce salt levels. Boil water to cool and collect only surface 4/5 of the total volume of water. Do not mix layers! The bottom layer just collects all unnecessary salts, but the water from the surface has the desired softness.
  2. Slightly less effective, but applicable additive from decoctions. For example, a decoction of alder cones. Not a good option, as well as the enrichment of liquid peat extract. The biological balance of water can be disrupted to a significant degree, which will affect algae growth, fertilization and spawning.

With a certain negativity of the latter method, it is necessary to mitigate and stimulate the spawning abilities of the haracinids.

Reduction or increase in water hardness must be calculated individually, based on the characteristics of the content of fish and plants. Any types and methods are averaged. But having on hand a few affordable drugs, you can still make your pets comfortable. The main thing - do not forget to clean the bowl, as a rule, any biological changes occur due to the presence in the water of food residues, waste and dead pieces of plants.

What is the rigidity of aquarium water, how to reduce it

HARDNESS (hD) - due to the presence of soluble calcium and magnesium salts in water. Their concentration in aquarium water is the GENERAL HARDNESS, which can be divided into TEMPORARY - CARBONATE and PERMANENT - NON-CARBONATE.

Temporary hardness (CN) is the concentration of bicarbonate calcium and magnesium salts, formed from a weak, unstable carbonic acid. Such rigidity can vary during the day. For example, in the daytime, aquarium plants during photosynthesis absorb carbon dioxide that accumulates in the water. If carbon dioxide is not enough for consumption by plants, they will start to produce it from the bicarbonate composition, as a result of which the temporary hardness of the water will decrease.

Permanent hardness (GH) - is the presence of stable calcium and magnesium salts, formed from strong acids - hydrochloric, sulfuric or nitric.

Water hardness is essential for the life of the aquarium world. Firstly, calcium and magnesium salts are used in the construction of the skeleton and have an impact on the construction of the whole fish organism. For different types of aquarium fish, the indicators of water hardness are different and failure to comply with them can lead to a deterioration of the health of the fish, a violation of the function of reproduction and fertilization of eggs.

The total hardness of the aquarium water is measured in German degrees (hD). 1 ° hD is 10 mg of calcium oxide in 1 liter of water.

Aquarium water with hardness parameters:

from 1 to 4 ° hD - is considered very soft;

from 4 to 8 ° hD - is considered soft;

from 8 to 12 ° hD - medium hardness;

from 12 to 30 ° hD - considered to be very tough;

Most aquarium fish feel comfortable with hardness of 3-15 ° hD.

How to change water hardness:

1.) Increase stiffness.

- KH hardness can be reduced by adding 1 tsp of baking soda to 50 liters, which will increase the performance by 4 ° dKH.

- 2 teaspoons of calcium carbonate to 50 liters of water will increase at the same time KH and GH by 4 degrees.

- Another measure for a smooth / gradual increase in water hardness is scattering and decorating the aquarium with seashells.

2.) Reducing stiffness (everything is more complicated here):

- use / add distilled water, which is sold in stores;

- use / add rain, snow, melt water from the refrigerator (must be clean, without turbidity and impurities).

- filter the water through an osmotic filter;

- filter water through peat (peat is added to the filter) or into the tank, where water is settled;

- the rigidity of the VF is reduced by boiling water in an enamel pot for 1 hour, followed by settling for 24 hours;

- natural water softeners are fast-growing plants: elodey, rogolodnik, nayas, valisneria.

HOW TO MEASURE the overall water hardness at home without specials. equipment and preparations (sample titration with soap solution):

The peculiarity of this method is that 10 mg of calcium oxide in 1 liter of water is neutralized with 0.1 g. clean soap.

1. 60-72% of household soap is taken, crumbled.

2. In a measuring cup (or other measuring vessel), water is poured (distilled, snowy, water melted from the refrigerator) - then distillate.

3. Soap powder (counted in grams) is added to the water so that it is possible to calculate the portion small in the resulting solution.

4. Pour 0.5 liters of the tested aquarium water into another dish and gradually add portions of the soap solution (0.1 gr.), Shake.

At first, gray flakes and quickly disappearing bubbles appear on the surface of the water. Gradually adding portions of the soap solution, we are waiting for all the calcium and magnesium oxide to contact - stable soap bubbles will appear on the surface of the water with a characteristic rainbow overflow.

This experience is over. Now we count the number of consumed soap portions, multiply them by two (the aquarium water was 0.5 liters, not 1 liter.). The resulting number will be the rigidity of the aquarium water in degrees. For example, 5 servings of soap * 2 = 10 ° hD.

With careful experience, the error can be + -1 ° hD.

When obtaining a stiffness result of more than 12 ° hD, the measurement accuracy decreases, it is recommended that the experiment be re-diluted with aquarium water with 50% distillate, double the result.

How to increase water hardness :: water hardness in the aquarium :: Natural Sciences

How to increase water hardness

To breed and maintain aquarium fish, it is required that rigidity water in the aquarium was constant. If the aquarium soil consists of coarse sand and river pebbles, the water in the aquarium will always have a certain rigidity. In aquariums that contain fish and shellfish, rigidity decreases over time due to the consumption of calcium by mollusks on the construction of shells. Therefore, it must be periodically increased.

The question "And yet! What appeared first?" Egg or chicken? "" - 12 answers

You will need

  • - carbonate rocks;
  • - 10% solutions of СаСl2 and MgSO4;
  • - 25% solution of magnesia;
  • - distilled, rain or melt water.

Instruction

1. To boost rigidity water, boil it in an enamel bowl for one hour. Drain neatly two thirds water, remaining, enriched with calcium, gradually pour a thin stream into the aquarium.

2. Prepare or buy in a pharmacy a 10% solution of calcium chloride (CaCl2) and a 10% solution of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4). To boost rigidity water on 1 ° dGH add 100 l water 18.3 ml of 10% calcium chloride (l 2) or 19.7 ml of 10% magnesium sulfate solution (MgSO4). To keep the fish and plants at the required ion ratio, add these solutions in approximately equal amounts.

3. To increase the carbonate hardness, put carbonate rocks (dolomite, chalk, marble, etc.) into the aquarium water or pass it through the marble chips. But remember that the dissolution of carbonate rocks in water is possible only in the presence of carbon dioxide: CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O -> Ca (HCO3) 2 To do this, add carbonated water to the water or to saturate water CO2 use a special device.

4. To increase carbonate rigidity at 1 ° dKH dissolve in 100 ml of 1.5 g MgCO3 (magnesium carbonate) or 1.8 g of CaCO3 (calcium carbonate). But it is better to use both salts in equal parts. Add a 25% solution of magnesia to the aquarium water at the rate of 1 ml per 1 liter water - so you will increase rigidity water at 4 °.

5. Mix the distilled tap and distilled water. If a rigidity water from the tap - 10 N °, then mix 7 parts distilled water with 3 parts tap waterto get aquarium water rigidityy 3 N °.

6. In the absence of distilled water in cities and villages with low air pollution, replace it with rain or thawed air, rigidity which is 2-3 N °.

7. Lay the coral conch or coral chips on the bottom of the aquarium. Pre-boil them for an hour. Change once a week from a total volume of 10-15% waterdo not overcrowd the aquarium, and rigidity water will not be permanent.

Water pH for aquarium

If you want to create a beautiful underwater world in your aquarium, you want to breed rare and exclusive breeds of fish, you should learn such a thing as the acidity of water.

Litmus test strips for measuring water

It is measured in chemical units Ph, for this purpose, a special test is used, the instrument or the acid-sensitive strips. If the value does not meet the norm per meter, it can threaten the health and even the life of fish and plants.

What is the acidity of the water in the aquarium

This concept is familiar to us from the school chemistry course. It means the content of positively charged hydrogen ions per meter of water. The optimum Ph value per meter is seven. This means that the tank is filled with "live" fluid, in which optimal conditions are created for the development of plants and fish. A Ph value of more than seven is considered a sign of an acidic environment, less than this figure is alkaline.
Please note that all of these figures are relevant only for wastewater and closed systems, the temperature of which is 25 degrees. If the water is warm and the test or strips show Ph = 7, this does not mean that the liquid medium is neutral.
The value of Ph depends on the presence in the aquarium or plant wastewater. In the daytime, when the tank is well lit and photosynthesis is actively undergoing, the acidity rises. At night, it decreases. Such fluctuations depend on other characteristics of aqua. The higher its rigidity, the less fluctuations your tester will show.
The acidity of wastewater and natural water bodies varies from 3 to 10. In an aquarium system, a value from 5 to 9 is necessary for fish. The final figure is determined by the specific type of plants and fish. Feeling pets is the best "tester", which shows whether the rigidity and Ph. For example, the norm for breeding males: Ph = 7.

Electronic tester

How to determine Ph level

To know what level of Ph in your tank: high or low, you need to measure it. The easiest way to determine the acidity of a living system is to apply a special test, including litmus strips and chemical reagents. It is affordable and sold in pet stores.
The strips change color depending on the content of positive hydrogen ions per meter of aqua or wastewater. Such a "device" is quite accurate: it indicates the level of Ph with an error of no more than 0.1-0.3 per meter. This is a valid scatter of data, because the acidity changes during the day.
Another option, how to measure Ph per meter, is to use an electronic tester. This device will give the most accurate answer to your question and will help control the rigidity and acidity for a long time. In many cases, the device can be connected to a computer and monitor readings online.
The tester has significant drawbacks. The water's ph varies with the temperature of the living biosystem, so it is necessary to purchase another device with it that will allow it to be measured. Another disadvantage is the high price. The test requires constant calibration, therefore, having bought it, stock up with a solution and monitor its freshness.
The tester consists of an electrode, whose service life is one year. The device must be kept moist and cleaned thoroughly before use. If you do not follow these rules, errors are possible. For example, the test will show that the rate in an aquarium with an acidic liquid, due to the fact that the rigidity of the water will be high.

How to lower the Ph of water in a live system

Defining a Ph for which a special test is used is only the first step in caring for the inhabitants of a living biosystem. The second stage is an understanding of whether this is the norm, and the performance of necessary measures.
Many inexperienced aquarists are wondering how to lower the Ph of an aquarium system or wastewater. There are the following effective methods:

  • add sodium bicarbonate to water;
  • aerate the wastewater;
  • boil some of the liquid reserved for plants and fish.

Alkaline preparations, for example, ordinary soda will help to lower the rate. Add it at the rate of 0.5 tsp per 50 liters. If after an hour the tester reflects insufficient changes, add as many more, wait, and again use litmus strips.

How to raise the Ph of a live system

If the test helped to determine that the Ph level per meter in the living biosystem is not high enough for the normal development of plants and fish, you need to increase it. Use the following recommendations of experts:

  • add sodium biophosphate - it will increase the rigidity;
  • put a small amount of natural peat on the bottom of the tank;
  • Put a couple of droplets of the acid into the system: acetic, phosphoric or hydrochloric.

If the water hardness is at a level, Ph fluctuations associated with the cessation of daytime photosynthesis will become less noticeable. A tester or strips will show that in the water average the norm is the content of positive ions per meter.

Ph value is an important indicator for both wastewater and closed ecosystems. As well as rigidity, it determines how comfortable conditions are created for fish and plants. If the electronic device or strips show that it is raised or lowered, take immediate action. After them, perform the test again at a temperature of 25 degrees.

Tests for aquarium water

The health and well-being of all the inhabitants of the aquarium, whether fish, snail, plants or others, is directly dependent on water. And its quality is affected by the composition, or rather the compliance of its parameters with certain standards. Their values ​​can be measured and adjusted. About why all this is necessary, what exactly to measure and with the help of what tests, we'll talk in this article.

Why do I need a diagnosis?

The home aquarium is a small body of water compared to a natural one. Its ecosystem is very variable, since it simply does not have internal resources to maintain a steady state. Vital parameters sometimes change during the day and even hours.

It is very bad for the health of the inhabitants. There is lethargy, loss of appetite and coloring, problems with breathing, violation of the integrity of the fins and more serious symptoms. Some aquarists immediately begin to add medication, more than upset the balance and exacerbate the problem.

To regulate this complex system, and need diagnostics. We can not always visually assess the quality of water, but we can always do this with the help of special tests. Moreover, it is desirable to assess the condition of the water, not only when problems have already appeared, but more so in order to prevent them.

What water parameters should be measured?

Rigidity. It is caused by the content in water of ions of Ca and Mg. The total hardness is made up of a constant (the one that persists after boiling for an hour) and a variable. In most cases, constant stiffness is measured. It depends on whether the inhabitants can live and multiply in a certain water. The norm is the level of hardness from 5 to 20 degrees.

Acidity. For the inhabitants of domestic ponds, only weakly acidic, slightly alkaline or neutral water is considered suitable. That is, the pH should be in the range from 6 to 8. You should also not forget that snags, soil and other parts that fill the aquarium, can change the acidity. Therefore, it must be monitored and adjusted in time.

Ammonia concentration (NH3). It is formed as a result of life activity of inhabitants, it quickly dissolves in water and is very toxic and dangerous, since fish in such an environment will not be able to breathe. 0.2 mg / liter is a palpable, and 1 mg / liter is a fatal level.

Ammonium concentration (NH4). Formed by the interaction of ammonia with water. Its toxicity is less than that of the previous compound, but it is also quite dangerous for the inhabitants.

If the concentration of these compounds in the water has increased, this indicates a poor performance of the biofilter. Also, the content of ammonia and ammonium depends on the acidity of water. In neutral and slightly acidic water, their minimum amount. To reduce its content, you need to monitor the purity of the water, replace it regularly and remove food residues and other waste from the ground.

The sudden death of inhabitants without prior atypical behavior, changes in appearance or habits also indicates an increase in MN3 and MN4. Be sure to need the control of newly launched, densely populated aquariums and tanks, where fish give a lot of waste, for example, gold. The norm is when tests show the complete absence of these compounds in water.

Concentration of nitrates and nitrites. They are formed by the oxidation of ammonium. Their presence indicates a poor performance of the biofilter. Nitrite in the amount of 0.5 ppm causes stress in the inhabitants, and 10-20 ppm causes death. Nitrates are safe at levels less than 30 mg / l, more than 80-100 mg / l are poisonous.


Types of tests for aquarium water

Tests are available to measure all of the above parameters. The minimum set includes studies on pH, GH, ammonia, ammonium, nitrates and nitrites.

Experts consider the test for nitrates to be the most useful, as it clearly shows the level of contamination of the aquarium.

Then there are tests for the content of nitrites and ammonia, which are especially useful when starting the aquarium or in case of stopping the filter. Tests for acidity and hardness are mostly informational.

The form of release is different:

  1. Test strips. They are the most inaccurate, but also the cheapest.
  2. Drip. They are easy to use, not very expensive, economical and fairly accurate.
  3. Long-term electronic tests. It is needed in cases where water parameters need to be monitored for a long time (as in the case of CO2).

The modern market offers tests from both imported, reputable manufacturers, such as Tetra, Sera, Aquarium Pharmaceuticals, etc., as well as low-cost domestic tests, for example, Neva Tropik’s NLPA.

All are accurate, effective and easy to use. Each has a manual and transcript of the results. Domestic NILPA adapted to our conditions and transfer temperature drops from -37 to +50 without loss of properties.

How to use the tests?

It is not difficult. Each test is provided with detailed instructions. Most often, a specified amount of aquarium water is poured into a measuring cup and a reagent is added dropwise. Then either consider the number of drops made before the color change, or compare the color of water with a scale. Decrypt the tables, figuring out whether this is the norm or deviation.

What to do after the diagnosis?

If the tests show any abnormalities, first of all it is necessary to ensure the inflow of fresh clean water. Options for how to do this:

  1. If the situation suffers, then you can defend the tap water for three days.
  2. If this needs to be done urgently, then you can quickly prepare an aqua like this:
  • clean with a household filter without silver, heat to the temperature of the aquarium, make aeration within an hour, measure the acidity, if necessary, correct it;
  • bring water to a boil, cool it, make aeration for at least an hour.

Next, replace the prepared one of these methods with water, a third or a quarter of the liquid in the aquarium.

  1. Refresh the water with special commercial reagents to quickly neutralize harmful impurities.

Optional Tests

In addition to the minimum set of mandatory tests, there are additional ones that the aquarist may or may not do in his own way. These include:

Phosphate Test (PO4). Ideally, the result should be zero. It means the stability and steady growth of plants. If an increase in the phosphate content has gone, the algae will immediately begin to grow. If the threshold is exceeded 1-2 mg / l, then urgent measures should be taken.

Iron Test (FE). The normal concentration is 0.05-0.1 mg / l. When it is raised, fish will suffer, and growing algae will inhibit and destroy the plants. A deficiency will lead to yellowing of the leaves and chlorosis of the plants.

Carbon Dioxide Test (CO2). It is relevant for plant aquariums, as well as the appearance of a grayish powdered deposit on the leaves of plants.

Copper test (CU). Very poisonous heavy metal, which even in small concentrations destroys invertebrates and causes poor health in fish. May contain tap water or stand out with some decorations and ground. In the aquarium should not be.

Chlorine Test (Cl). Very toxic and toxic. Present in tap water, but evaporates when it is left standing for 2-3 days in an open container.

Oxygen test (O2). Its presence depends on the water temperature (in cold - more, in hot - less). It is necessary both for the life of the inhabitants, and for the purification of water from poisons, since oxygen-dependent bacteria decompose them. Not only the lack of this gas is harmful, but also a glut of it.

Calcium Test (Ca). The amount of its salts affects the hardness of the water. For example, for marine inhabitants, corals, mollusks, turtles a lot of calcium is required. And for some fish that live in soft water, its high concentration is unacceptable.

Now that you know about the interrelation of all water parameters, their impact on the life and health of aquarium inhabitants, how to measure and adjust them, we hope your pets will be less likely to get sick and die, and your home water will delight you with its blooming all year round. kind of. Good luck!

An instructive video about tests for aquarium water, how to use them and why they are needed:

How to measure the water hardness in an aquarium :: how water hardness is measured :: Animals :: Other

Tip 1: How to measure the hardness of water in an aquarium

As the first half of the famous proverb says - the fish is looking for where it is deeper. But not all representatives of this mysterious world have the opportunity to make at least some choice. In particular, those of them who spend their lives in captivity, are often content with such conditions as the "golden cage" offers them - an aquarium. The most important condition for the normal functioning of aquarium fish is good water.

The question "Why are cats not a commodity when there are already reviews about them?" - 1 reply

Instruction

1. The main property is important. water - rigiditywhose level is determined by the presence of calcium and magnesium ions in the liquid, measured in degrees. So, 30 ° and above is a sign of high rigidity, and 11-18 ° - medium. Rigidity water measure and monitor each time it is changed or topped up. Usually aquarists use measuring instruments.

2. Take a regular tube. Pour water into it and add a drop of liquid soap. Drip - shake the tube, drip again and gently shake again. The level of hardness is determined by the number of soap drops.

3. Carbonate or temporary rigidity at home can be measured using a pH indicator. Type in a disposable syringe 1 ml of 70% acetic essence and dilute 50 ml of distilled or well boiled water (Boil for 20 minutes, then cool and, without stirring, pour off the "upper" water).

4. Further in the same 50 ml, but already aquarium water, drip 8 drops of the indicator, and then gently shaking it, add a solution of vinegar to this water. Its color will begin to change: yellow - lettuce - with a touch of orange. After that, measuring how much vinegar you spent, multiply the millimeters by two - the resulting number will be carbonate rigidityyu in milliequivalents. Of course, this method is not entirely accurate, because the change in the color of the indicator is not clear enough.

5. You can go the other way: just buy a test in a pet shop or a special device for measuring "water" hardness (although this is not the most economical method among the existing ones, but it is relatively accurate). Experienced "holders" of aquarium fish have appropriate signs (for example, increased rigidity water requires more soap to create a foam, "spawns" bloom inside the kettle, etc.) Also, watch the water before adding it to the aquarium.

6. And now a few tips. To reduce rigidity water in your aquarium, add distilled or clear rainwater to it, use special plants, for example, elodeyu and rogolovnik. In addition, the water can be frozen or boiled well. In the first case, it is poured into a low pelvis and exposed to frost. As soon as it freezes to half capacity, ice is punched and melted, used for the aquarium. In the second, water is boiled in an enameled cup for an hour, then allowed to cool and use two thirds of the "upper" water.

Tip 2: How to measure water hardness

Water is called hard if it contains a large amount of magnesium and calcium salts. Such water in everyday life is usually not loved because it forms a layer of scale on kettles and pans and does not allow soap to foam.

You will need

  • Methodical edition on analytical chemistry.

Instruction

1. Rigidity water There are two types: carbonate (temporary) and non-carbonate (permanent). The first is removed by boiling (about an hour). After that, a white precipitate (calcium carbonate) and carbon dioxide are formed. The second is eliminated more difficult: either chemically or by distillation. Total hardness water determined by the sum of constant and temporary stiffness. In chemistry, the stiffness is expressed as the sum of milliequivalents of calcium and magnesium ions in 1 liter. water. One milliequivalent stiffness equals 20.04 milligrams of calcium ions or 12.16 milligrams of magnesium ions in 1 liter. water.

2. One way to measure stiffness is titration. For this purpose, it is necessary to place 100 ml of the test in two conical flasks. water, 5 ml of buffer solution, 1 ml of sodium sulfide and 5-6 drops of the black ET-00 chromogen indicator of indicator (it is necessary to use measuring pipettes). After mixing, the solutions are pink in color.

3. The mixture is then titrated with Trilon B using a microburette. Trilon B is added carefully, in droplets, to obtain a blue color. Further, it is noted how many ml of Trilon B was titrated to the nearest hundredth. Two samples are titrated for the purity of the experiment.

4. The next step is considered the average volume using a simple formula Vsr = (V1 + V2) / 2, where V1 is the volume of Trilon B, followed by titration of the solution in the first flask, ml, V2 is the volume of Trilon B, followed by titration of the solution in the second flask. And the last thing to do in this method is to calculate the stiffness using the formula Ж = (Vср * N * 1000) / V, where Vav is the average volume of the Trilon B, followed by titration in two flasks, ml (calculated by the above formula) N - normal concentration of Trilon B, 1000 - recalculation per 1 l water, V - volume of the studied waterml If it is necessary to express rigidity in degrees, then the resulting number should be multiplied by a factor of 2.8.

5. With hardness up to 4 meq / l, water is considered soft, from 4 to 8 meq / e of medium hardness, from 8 to 12 mg is eq / l hard and over 12 meq / l is particularly hard. Of course, in the conditions of modern laboratories rigidity water can be measured not only by titration, but also by various devices, for example, a conductometer and electronic devices. If there is an opportunity to work on such equipment, then it is easier, more efficient and more accurate. But the titration method is fairly accurate and simple.

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❶ How to reduce the rigidity in the aquarium :: Equipment and accessories

How to reduce the rigidity in the aquarium

In urban water supply, the hardness indicator of the water is quite high, so often the aquarist needs to lower it. The inhabitants of the aquarium feel good in water with a level of hardness from 3 to 15 degrees. Some species of snails cannot live in soft water, as their shells begin to collapse. Live-bearing fish should be kept in water with stiffness about 10 degrees. For neon fish, the hardness indicator of the water should not exceed 6 degrees. Sagittaria and water fern germinate well in water with stiffness 10-14 degrees, and uviranda dies even at 5 degrees.

Instruction

1. Do not forget to take into account that the level of water hardness varies depending on the season. Many people know that boiling well reduces this level, but this applies only to the temporal component of rigidity. In steady seasons - by the end of summer and by the end of winter - it increases, and the rains and floods lead to water softening. Therefore, in spring, fish are prepared for spawning and plants begin to grow.

2. Perfectly soften water plants such as elodea, algae hara, hornomy. Their leaves and stems are usually covered with a crust, which is a precipitate of calcium salts. Plants do not absorb carbon dioxide at night, and in the process of breathing living beings in a reservoir it accumulates in aquariumas a result, the water hardness increases. If there are sharp fluctuations in the level of hardness at night and during the day due to the presence of a large number of these plants, it can kill all animals in just one night: they will simply suffocate. That is why the "blooming" of water is a very unpleasant and dangerous phenomenon in aquarium. Remember that this can start in brightly lit aquariums with rotting food residues. Adding distilled water will help reduce the constant component of water hardness.

3. Besides the usual boiling, there is another method of obtaining water with stiffnesswhose level is close to zero. To do this, it is necessary to fix a glass plate in front of the nose of the boiling kettle. At its bottom edge, install a container to collect the condensed vapors. The water obtained in the tank in this way will have a hardness close to zero.

4. Water hardness can be reduced by simple freezing. Pour 3/4 of water into an empty polyethylene bottle, close and place in the freezer. When about half of the water freezes, remove the container from the refrigerator. After that, carefully cut the bottle and remove the frozen part of the water. This piece of ice, melted, will become water with a very low level of hardness.

How to recognize water hardness in an aquarium?

Dimka Miller

There are several methods for determining the hardness of water. To do this, in specialized stores purchase products that allow you to quickly determine the permanent and temporary water hardness. According to the instructions for these drugs, a certain amount of water is poured into the burette and the drug is dropped into it drop by drop, shaking the burette after each drop. The number of drops that went to obtain the color of water specified in the instructions corresponds to degrees of hardness.
The hardness of the water can be determined by a soap method, based on the fact that 10 mg of calcium oxide in 1 liter of water is neutralized with 0.1 g of soap. To do this, 2-3 g of laundry soap diluted in warm distilled water. Then this solution is poured into a vessel with divisions. In 1 liter of aquarium water, 0.1 g of soap solution is poured until soap bubbles with a rainbow shade appear on the surface. The number of servings of 0.1 g is equal to the number of degrees of hardness of water. With very hard water, to increase the measurement accuracy, the water is diluted by half with distilled water, and the measurement result is multiplied by 2.For most aquarium fish and plants, water with hardness from 3 to 1b ° С can be considered the most acceptable.
For the maintenance and breeding of aquarium fish, tap water is not soft enough, it has to be softened. The main method of softening water is mixing it in certain proportions with distilled or rainwater.
Or mix tap water with a softer, purified. Before mixing, the tap water is heated 40 minutes to 90 ° C and then cooled.
The hardness can be reduced by boiling water for 1 hour, then the water is cooled and 2/3 of the upper water layer is used, but some of the nutrients needed by plants are lost.
To reduce the hardness of water several times can be a simple freezing. To do this, it is necessary to pour water into a low polyethylene vessel (the container is not completely filled, since the water expands during freezing) and put it in the freezer. After the water freezes to about half, the container is removed from the freezer and kept warm for a while to extract a piece of ice without any extra effort. The remaining salt-rich water is drained, a piece of ice is placed in a clean dish, melted, the resulting soft water is brought to the desired temperature, after which it can be used for its intended purpose.
The hardness of the water in the aquarium, where fish and mollusks are kept, gradually decreases naturally: calcium is used to build its shells by mollusks, it is absorbed by plants and crabs.
If coarse sand and river pebbles serve as soil, the aquarium water will have more or less constant hardness. Aquarium plants such as elodea and hornpole are used to soften water.
There are special softeners working on the basis of ion-exchange acrylic resins. In this case, water with pieces of acrylic resin added to it should stand for 1-3 weeks. After that, it is drained through the hose into the aquarium, leaving a small layer of water at the bottom of the clarifier vessel.
You can increase the hardness of the water by boiling it for 1 hour and use the bottom layer after cooling. You can increase the hardness of the water by mixing it with harder water.

Andrew

If you are not going to breed very tender fish (such as discus or angelfish), then most of the fish water hardness is not so important. They are already in the hundredth generation living in the water of the area where you bought them. But look at the heater. Or evaporate a couple of grams in a test tube. If there is scale, then the water is hard. In any case, the water evaporates and the rigidity of the remaining increases. For any you have to add tap water (after sludge, of course). So trying to maintain a strictly defined stiffness is useless.

How to increase water hardness in a freshwater aquarium?

Oksana

Aquarium water. Water hardness (dH) //www.ekzotika.com/aqua34
... In an aquarium where fish and mollusks are kept, the hardness of the water gradually decreases: calcium is used to build the shells of mollusks, it is absorbed by fish and plants. In an empty aquarium, water hardness increases due to the constant evaporation of water, as well as the transition of calcium into the water from the ground. To soften the water, you can use plants such as roach and elodey. To increase the hardness, you can add small pieces of limestone, chalk, marble chips, shells, magnesium chloride and calcium to the water. Total hardness (dH - from the English expression "Degrees of Hardeness" - "degrees of hardness") Measure the level dH. There are drugs on the market that allow you to quickly determine the total and temporary hardness (KH) of water. To do this, pour a certain amount of instruction into the burette and drop the preparation into it drop by drop, slightly shaking the burette after each drop. The number of drops that went to obtain the color of water, the color of which is specified in the instructions, corresponds to degrees of hardness.

Ivan

On aquarium sites, everything is uncleaned. Pre-revolutionary and modern methods are described with the calculation of all chemical formulas. Straight in the search and dial as the question is framed. In general, 2 tablespoons of drinking soda for every 100 liters. water. Ph above 8.2 will not rise. When water changes in the future, add 0.5-0.7 teaspoons per bucket of water. In order to avoid a sharp increase in the stiffness of the solution, pour in several steps gradually.

Alex

Soda does not affect water hardness! Stiffness is the sum of divalent ions, mainly calcium and magnesium. The simplest way is to put a shell or a sprig of coral into an aquarium. You can pour in the filter marble or dolomite chips. Stiffness will increase to saturation and will continue to grow due to the dissolution of carbonates with organic acids. In most cases, nothing more is needed. If you want to adjust the stiffness to a degree, you need to buy a stiffness meter with a ion-selective electrode (very expensive) or a test indicator is very cheap. And then add the pK tool and measure.

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