Soil for the aquarium: which one is better
So, it happened. The question to be or not to be with the purchase of an aquarium was decided in the direction of being, after a huge number of logical conclusions and financial calculations. And what's next? After all, one desire is clearly not enough for a piece of the sea striking with beauty to appear at home, and the fish living in it always please the eye with health and lively activity. To achieve this goal, you need to solve a bunch of small tasks, and one of them is the choice of soil for the future of the underwater kingdom. This question is one of the most important and paramount.
Why do you need primer
It is quite natural that a person standing in front of a shop or market stall may have his eyes scattered from the presented variety of underwater land. There is a variety of soil in color, in shape and in size.
In such an abundance of products it is easy to get lost, not only to a beginner, but also to a different lover. After all, the aquarium bottom is not only an important component of the decor, along with the background, lighting and decorations, it also plays one of the main roles in the biochemical life of the aquarium.
On its surface, beneficial microorganisms, bacteria, fungi, and bryozoans are actively developing and multiplying, and he actively processes the waste products of the inhabitants of the underwater kingdom.
A sort of natural filter in which various kinds of suspended matter and microparticles that pollute water are deposited. And this is all, not to mention the fact that the soil is a substrate for most underwater plants.So, before grabbing one or another bag of soil from the store shelf, you should first decide - no matter how strange it sounds - what the aquarium is made for.
The further choice of the bottom litter depends on the answer to the question posed, because for fish it is one, and for plants it is completely different.
Types of soil
Aquarium soil is divided into three main categories:
Natural. This group includes materials of exclusively natural origin that have not undergone any additional processing, for example, gravel, sand, pebbles, quartz, crushed stone.
This soil does not contain any nutrients, and the underwater garden planted in it will begin to grow no earlier than six months after planting, when there is enough waste and sludge accumulated in it, which plants can use as food.
To speed up the growth of underwater flora, the earth must be further nourished. Underwater fertilizers in the form of tablets, capsules or granules can be purchased at any pet store. In this group, sometimes there is a variation - processed natural soil, for example, from baked clay.
Mechanical substrate. In this case, the soil obtained by chemical or mechanical processing of natural material.
Artificial. Many companies make certain nutrient mixtures for aquariums. This type of soil is best suited for the Dutch aquarium, in which the first place plants, and for shrimp.
What can not be used?
Natural is not always good
Any natural soil that releases soluble substances into the water, such as marble, shell rock or coral sand.
Calcium carbonate contained in these types of minerals, over time begins to dissolve in the soft-acidic environment of the aquarium, thereby increasing the hardness of the water. If you do not grow special fish that carry or live in hard water, this type of soil will be fatal for underwater inhabitants.Therefore, if the origin of the acquired soil causes the slightest suspicion or doubt, a simple home test can be performed, which will show the safety level of the flooring.
Just splash a small amount of vinegar or citric acid on it. If bubbles or foam are formed on the surface, then this ground cannot be used. It is better to refuse it or, if it is a pity to throw it out, it can be processed by washing with hydrochloric acid.
To do this, you need to soak for a couple of hours in acid, and then rinse under a strong jet of warm water. Don't forget about rubber gloves!
Glass primer - what's the catch?
Although this type of bottom flooring is chemically neutral, it is not recommended to use it in aquarism, since the glass surface is devoid of porosity, in which useful microparticles and bacteria develop, it is absolutely smooth. In addition, plant nutrients are not retained in such a soil, they are washed out, and the underwater garden dies quickly.
Common mistake. Very often, especially beginners, lay out the soil in layers, falling asleep a large fraction of the small. This cannot be done, since the basic quality of the bottom litter is lost - its porosity.
Any soil, whatever you choose, must breathe.
Otherwise, the water will start to stagnate, and this will lead to waterlogging, decay of organic matter (fish waste products, food remains and dead plant leaves), releasing substances harmful to the flora and fauna and, as a result, death of underwater inhabitants and the transformation of the once beautiful aquarium in a fetid swamp.
It is possible, but not necessary.
First of allThis material is very small and light. Fish that began to dig in it instantly muddy the water, raising a pile of silt and dust.
SecondlyIts high porosity contributes to the absorption of organic pollution and further clogging of the underwater environment, as in the case of non-flowing soil.
There is such a misconception that land suitable for cultivation of land crops, suitable for underwater. Not true! If you throw this land into an aquarium, then the process of decay will begin in a couple of days, and what this leads to was written above. Therefore, it is better to leave this land under your favorite petunia or on the garden with a carrot and not pull it in the akvadom.
Any other materials that are not suitable for use as an aquarium floor, for example, cat litter (such tips are sometimes found).
What you should pay attention to?
The main rule that needs to be guided in choosing the bottom flooring is as follows: the smaller the fish, the finer the soil. And the more fragile the root system of plants, the smaller should be the particles, and for strong and healthy roots it is better to choose a coarse fraction of soil.
The nature of the fish
You should also consider the habits of selected future pets. It is logical if the fish love to dig in the land, then for such restless ones one should prefer a mixture of a large fraction, otherwise the water will be constantly clouded.
But there are exceptions, for example, fish, in which the process of digging and being in the ground is an integral part of life. And if they are deprived of this, then they will be uncomfortable. For such pets large flooring is not suitable. They will beat him like a wall.
If the habits of future pets are still unknown, or you have not decided on filling the aquarium, then in this case you should consult with the seller before choosing the soil.
Also, close attention should be paid to the shape and size. The particles should be even, rounded, without chipping and potholes. Not only is planting in uneven soil more difficult, as well as plant survival in it is significantly reduced. And this is all, not to mention the fact that such a bottom can injure underwater inhabitants and cause them injury.
To size. If the material particles are less than 1 mm, then this soil can be safely attributed to the sand. From 5 mm - pebble, coarse soil.
Whatever type of soil you choose, the main thing is to follow the water permeability rule. To ensure it, it is best to choose a soil in which the particle size is about the same, and no matter how long or wide they are, 1 mm or 10 mm. The main thing is to prevent larger particles from falling asleep, otherwise the respiration of the soil is disturbed and the aquarium rot and swamp.
There are no restrictions here. Now in the shops lies on the shelves a huge amount of multi-colored soil. For aqua-designers, this is just paradise! When choosing a color, it is worth starting from the aesthetic combination of shapes and shades, as well as playing on contrasts.Probably not the best solution for choosing a blue fish blue bottom mound, while all around planting green plants. Everything here is limited to the imagination and creativity of the aquarist. Color rules to help you.
Accommodation in the aquarium
Before pouring the acquired bottom flooring, it is worth washing it. This is done under the pressure of running water to wash away excess dust and lime. For greater certainty, you can boil.
Do not use soaps or other cleaning products for this process, since chemistry will be even more difficult to remove in the future.
The flooring can be placed on the bottom of the tank in an even layer, or it can be tilted from the far wall to the front. This type of placement will give relief to the underwater landscape. Here again, it all depends on the taste and imagination of the owner.
The optimal layer size is 5-7 mm. You can pour 10 mm, but remember that the pressure exerted by the soil on the glass will increase several times. Will it survive? In addition, a thick layer of flooring will not be well permeable, which means that there is a high risk of starting the process of stagnation and decay. You can also mix the soil of different colors, creating drawings and patterns at the bottom. There is nothing wrong with this, but over time the ground will spread, and nothing will remain of creativity.
After that, decorations are placed on the bottom - snags, pots, houses, etc. Then the aquarium is half-filled with water, and only now you can plant the plants. After landing, you can add water by stepping back from the edge of 2 cm.
And even when everything is done and the aquarium is ready to receive its first tenants, do not rush. From the moment of launching the aquarium and before replanting the fish in it, it takes 2-3 weeks for the microflora of water to settle, and the plants to take root and strengthen in a new place.
Caring for the soil is in its periodic cleaning. This is done by a special device - siphon. It is sold in pet stores. This is something like a vacuum cleaner to clean the aquarium, which is draining unnecessary residues of organic matter from the soil using a vacuum.
If the bottom flooring was chosen correctly, its permeability was preserved, then caring for it is not difficult. Cleaning is done as it is polluted, the ground itself changes completely about once every five years.
In the new aquarium, it is best to feed plants with special fertilizers. In the first year it is not necessary to clean it.
The aquarium can be completely without soil. In this case, the plants are planted on the bottom in special pots. By the way, the plants themselves can also be used as bottom litter, for example, a creeping echinodorus.
Whatever soil you prefer, the main thing is that it should be chosen wisely and precisely for the goals that were set. Follow these simple rules, and the aquarium will always delight you with beauty, and the underwater inhabitants will remain grateful.
Types of soil for aquariums
Soil for the aquarium - an indispensable foundation for aquascape and biological balance. It has not only a decorative function, but also provides the soil for plants, is a biological filter that can not be replaced with something else. In a newly launched tank, aquarium soil is a breeding ground for beneficial single-celled microorganisms. For this reason, the choice of soil for aquariums plays an important role for the harmonious functioning of all aquatic aquatic organisms.
How to choose and process the soil
The soil is improving the root system of plants, from it they absorb nutrients. In plants with a developed root system, there are large demands on the quality of the soil. Aquarium primers also support organic water characteristics, for example, aquarium soil with limestone affects the hardness indicators of the aquatic environment.
Various materials can be used as primers for aquariums. A significant role is played by which substrate is suitable for plants and fish. Decorative mounds and pumps are easily made from gravel. If you are seriously engaged in growing aquarium seedlings, first of all, you need to take care of the quality of the substrate. The size of the gravel particles should not exceed 5 mm. Do not sprinkle fine sand on the bottom of the tank, which quickly deteriorates. Make sure that the soil does not change the organic parameters of the water, it is natural, without dyes. If you need to increase the pH and hardness, lay on the bottom of the soil for aquarium with shell or marble chips.
Regardless of whether your soil is purchased or extracted from the natural environment, it must be processed. If you have purchased sand, it should be sifted through a sieve to remove small stones and other particles. Pebbles also had to be moved so that the entire substrate consisted of identical particles. If you buy quality soil, then the cleaning procedure is not necessary.
New soil should be washed under running water. It is poured into a large container, poured with water, stirred, then the water must be drained. It is necessary to rinse until the pollution is removed, it will take 10-15 minutes by the time. Apart from this method, you can put the primer in the oven for 10 minutes, and there it will heat up to the temperature that it will disinfect from parasites.
See tips on how to choose a primer for an aquarium.
What can be materials for soil
How to choose a material for the soil substrate? All materials of which the ground for the aquarium is made can be clean or with admixtures of additives. Peat can be added to the sand or gravel, which improves the nutritional properties of the soil. Peat perfectly holds elements such as anions and cations, pure gravel does not have this ability.
Sand and gravel as grounds for aquariums is a natural substrate that is also suitable for plants. The amount of fine gravel is from 2 to 5 mm, it has a low ability to retain nutrients. Good gravel secures the rhizomes of plants, put on peat. Fine sand does not contain nutrients, absorbs them poorly, breaks gas exchange. It is better to use sand with other substrates (cake, rakushnyak, clay). If a bottom filter is installed in the tank, fine sand will clog the equipment with dirt particles. It is better to use coarse river sand purchased from a reputable manufacturer. Do not choose sand saturated colors - yellow and red. This substrate contains a large amount of iron, which is harmful to fish.
Aquarium clay soil - clay contains inorganic components, such as iron silicates and iron oxides. Some types of clay may have other components - copper, manganese, zinc, aluminum. They are required for plants, but in high concentrations have toxic properties. A special property of clay is that it attracts positively charged ions of metals and salts. It also serves as an excellent fertilizer for vegetation.
Laterite is a tropical red earth consisting of iron dioxide. Laterite can be used as a bottom layer for soil. It has a good ability to absorb nutrients.
Garden soil as soil for aquariums - garden soil contains many impurities. There is no guarantee that the land will be clean. In the land of a large number of fertilizers, parasite cysts. It is saturated with nutrients, due to which the glass tank will quickly fill with algae. The land used for pot plants has a lot of organic matter and peat, it can be mixed with gravel and sand as an additive.
Peat - needed to soften the water. It consists of a mixture of organic minerals that are in a rotten state. Peat is added to aquariums, where plants and fish need humic acids. In small concentrations, boiled peat is practically harmless.
Artificial plastic granules - a new type of soil that can satisfy many aquarists. The granules are of different shades, but the rich color may be too contrasted against the background of the underwater aquascape. Remember that the substrate must be chosen closer to the natural color: gray, black, red-brown, white. Fish with bright body color will look great on this background.
See how to care for quartz sand in an aquarium.
How to lay the substrate at the bottom of the aquarium
Grounds for aquariums should be laid in three layers:
- The bottom of the aquarium is lined with laterite or clay mixed with gravel (the thickness of the lower layer is from 3 to 5 cm). You can add clay balls to the laterite, which will provide nourishment for new, non-adapted plants. Cables for heating the bottom should be laid in a glass tank so that the glass is not injured. Do not lay the heating cable in a shallow clay or sand substrate to prevent overheating.
- The middle layer should be slightly thinner - 3 centimeters, the substrate - sand or gravel, which can be mixed with a small amount of boiled peat. The thickness of the middle layer is recommended to put balls of clay.
- Поверхность грунтового шара выстилают мелким гравием, перемешанным с песком, что предотвращает помутнение воды. На верхний слой можно поместить декоративные камни или кораллы, ракушки (при необходимости). If there are pets in the aquarium digging the ground (catfish, cichlids, snails), then the top layer should be an order of magnitude thicker (5 cm), or the soil should be planted in pots along with broadleaf plants.
How to conduct siphon bottom
On the shelves of stores sold fixture - a hose with a cylinder and a funnel at the end. The diameter of the hose should not contain the fish themselves, only garbage should pass into it. The device has the name "siphon", you can wrap it with gauze so that living creatures do not fall into it. Siphon can remove food debris, waste products of pets, they can drain the soil and remove sludge. Properly selected siphon will only remove excess, without harm to vegetation.
Prepare a plastic bucket for excrement and uneaten food with old water. The difference between the siphon and the replacement of water is that the funnel should be lowered to the bottom of the aquarium almost every day, the ground itself due to its gravity does not fall into the hose, but it takes the dirt. Water should be changed less often - once in 7 days.
Soil for the aquarium should be chosen such that it meets several requirements. The first - supported the physico-chemical processes in the water, the second - benefited the fish and plants, did not emit toxic impurities. If you want to soften the water or increase its rigidity, choose the appropriate substrate. Hydrogen soil indicators should be acidic (7.0 pH), or pH neutral (5.5). The water gets tough when there are shells and corals in the bottom substrate. Sometimes it can adversely affect the health of some pets. Properly process, clean the soil substrate, then in your tank will create a permanent biological balance.
About aquarium soil
Proper nutrient soil for the aquarium is not a simple matter, since you need to take into account the various characteristics of the fish (size, body shape, etc.), behavior, number of inhabitants in the aquarium and other factors. Let's get acquainted with all these nuances in more detail.
We will understand the concepts
A beginner aquarist wonders how many different terms are used to characterize the soil and how difficult it is to navigate in this diversity. That is why we propose to determine the concepts. So, the soil can be divided into three groups:
- gravel, crushed stone, natural sand, pebbles;
- formed due to various kinds of processing of natural materials;
Sand is a separate variety, a distinctive feature - grains smaller than one millimeter. It can be natural (gray, black) and artificial. The pet store is widely represented colored quartz sand.
Pebbles are larger in size, the size of its grains is more than five millimeters.
Which to choose?
What soil is needed for an aquarium? It is recommended to use for a freshwater aquarium, for example, black, gray or white large river sand, building sand, small pebbles or run-in gravel. More specifically, the size of the grains of sand should vary between 2-3 mm. Pebbles for the aquarium may be larger - 2-8 mm. Fine sand is placed on the bottom (the size of the grains of sand is 1.5-2.5), then a layer of coarse sand (size 3-4.5 mm).
It is not advisable to make a more dense base for the aquarium, since it will provoke the accumulation of organic residues, the formation of large quantities of rotting and decomposition products, which will release hydrogen sulfide into the water. To prevent soil compaction, you need to place large pebbles on the bottom of the aquarium under the sand. Despite the fact that small grains of sand will seep down, the pebbles will improve the flow of the soil. For the same reason, it is not recommended to use fine marine quartz sand as a primer. Washed river sand is much easier.
If your choice is pebbles, then know about the difficulties that may arise when sucking debris out of the aquarium with a hose. Small pebbles are likely to block the hose, and you will not be able to carry out the cleaning procedure. How to avoid a similar problem? It is necessary to use a larger diameter hose or use a transparent hose. In the first case, the pebbles will not get stuck, in the second - you will see where the traffic jam occurred. There is another way - to use a siphon with a funnel.
Should I take into account the behavior of fish?
The general rule: small fish prefer fine-grained soil, larger fish - large or mixed soil. But there are exceptions.
So, goldfish are very active, love to dig in the sand, dig in the pebbles. If you put in a tank of small pebbles or sand, the water will be constantly muddy. There may be more serious consequences: goldfish can swallow pebbles.
Note and fish-bindweed. The peculiarity of their behavior is due to the fact that they are bottom dwellers and love to dig deep into the ground. If coarse grained soil is placed for such fish, the bindweed will be injured about it, it will be extremely uncomfortable for them.
The following rules will be helpful:
- for bottom fish and for those who search for food, burrow into the ground or hide in it when frightened, it is best to cover the bottom with sand that does not contain fragments with pointed edges. You can even need to sprinkle it with peat chips;
- for large fish, it is better to place large pebbles, small boulders, expanded clay on the bottom;
- for fish that lay eggs in the ground, it is better to use small pieces of peat (peat okroshka).
If in the aquarium live fish of various species, then naturally there may be a need for a combination of soil. For example, it is possible to use the soil of the small fraction as the lower layer, as the upper layer - the large soil.
Which sand to choose: color, black or white - of course you decide. But it is necessary to take into account the advice of experienced aquarists. White is not recommended, because it does not create the necessary contrast, the fish do not stand out against its background, the aquarium looks too calm, and its inhabitants are amorphous. Black is a much better option, it does not distract attention from the fish at all.
Colored attracts attention, lying on the pet shop window, but while in the aquarium, he rather distracts this attention.
However, it is possible to find a middle ground by mixing colors. How many can they use? Answer the question as much as you can, rather a question in color compatibility. Gray quartz sand and white - a harmonious combination, black and white - a traditional duet. In general, white is often used to decorate an aquarium.
The most important criterion when choosing a soil for plants is its nutritional value. Why is that? The reason is that plants receive substances necessary for growth and development, precisely from the ground. To enrich it, you can put lumps of clay, peat into the aquarium, introduce special preparations that can be purchased at the pet store.
Before you choose and place nutritious sand, pebbles in an aquarium, you need to think carefully. To all the previously listed rules add the following:
- On the counter of the pet store you can see different varieties: black, white, color. But it is worth remembering that the best of the whole variety is not a color, but a natural nourishing soil that is not colored by anything. Colored soil, being in aquarium for a long time, loses its color, and the dye, respectively, dissolves in water. A modern manufacturer, creating colored sand, does not use toxic materials, but does not use completely harmless ones. So, red and yellow soil contains iron oxides, which can adversely affect the health of fish. Keep this in mind when purchasing the color version;
- soluble materials, such as limestone, are not used as soil;
- a full change of soil in the aquarium or its washing is carried out 1 time in 5 years;
- do not use colored river sand as a base: do not put red or yellow in the aquarium.
About laying in the aquarium
It is not enough to choose the right sand, it is equally important to correctly put it in the aquarium. Laying soil in an aquarium should help recreate the look of a natural reservoir. It should be laid with a slope to the front glass in the aquarium. What's the point of this? Thanks to this simple reception, it will be easier to remove the dirt that accumulates in the recesses of the soil. The thickness may be different, but in the range from 3 to 8 cm. In addition, it is permissible to build a small area in the front glass in the form of plexiglass rims that will be free of soil. In this place of the aquarium, a tubule or bloodworm can burrow. For this purpose, a transparent glass vessel can be placed in an aquarium.
Soil for aquarium with fish and plants: the rules of preparation
Nutrient soil is extremely important to put in the aquarium. How to do it? If you collected the soil for the aquarium with your own hands, did not purchase it in the store, then you need to prepare it. How to do it? Rinse and boil. This is the so-called ground cleaning in an aquarium before it is placed. It is necessary to prepare also sand, pebbles, bought in a pet store. It is enough to wash and process with boiling water.
An error will be washing with the addition of domestos or other chemicals. How can this affect the constancy of the aquarium? The fact is that sand, pebbles are well absorbed by chemical compounds, it will be very difficult to wash them after processing, which means that they will gradually be released into the water.
After the selection of soil for the aquarium, it can be placed in the aquarium with fish and plants. You can do this immediately: rinse and still wet place in the aquarium.
Black, colored, quartz, as well as a different sand needs care. How to clean the soil in the aquarium, how to monitor its cleanliness? The soil for the aquarium, along with the plants must be periodically cleaned, in other words, siphon. Externally, the siphon is a hose in which a vacuum is created and by means of which dirt is sucked in with water. Sand, pebbles need to be cleaned as it gets dirty.
Now you know how to choose sand, pebbles, how to prepare them, how to clean the soil in the aquarium and a lot of other useful information. One thing remains: choose the appropriate option and apply all the knowledge gained in practice. Good luck!
What aquarium soil is better?
Before those who only decided to start an aquarium, many questions inevitably arise. One of the most important when arranging a small piece of the aquatic ecosystem in a house or apartment: what is the best soil to choose for an aquarium? After all, the soil provides not only aesthetic beauty, but also plays an important role in the formation and maintenance of the necessary conditions for the life of small fishes and marine microorganisms.
Types of soil for aquariums
The best soil for an aquarium can be selected, starting from your own capabilities, aesthetic views, as well as what types of fish you plan to breed. In general, all varieties of soil by origin are divided into three groups: from natural material, soils obtained by chemical or mechanical processing of natural material, and those that are completely composed of artificial elements. The easiest and most accessible way to get natural types of soil, as they can be collected independently. These can be pebbles, small gravel, fragments of rocks, shells, which are not difficult to find on the bank of the river or in ravines and quarries. A major role in the use of such a soil is its thorough cleansing. It is recommended to first hold the natural soil in an acid solution (for example, table vinegar) for 30 minutes, and then rinse under running water. Some aquarium owners also use soil boiling. The choice of natural soil depends on your ability to collect and purchase, but it is worth noting that deciding which soil for an aquarium is better for plants, you should pay attention to soils consisting of gravel of volcanic origin, which release a large amount of mineral substances into the water. growth and strengthening of the root system. With other soils it will be necessary to use special baits at first.
Chemically processed and synthetic primers created from synthetic compounds can be easily purchased at the pet store. They benefit from the natural soil with its various colors and the fact that such a soil will not release harmful substances into the water, however, the useful properties of this soil are zero, so all the additional minerals needed to create an aquarium ecosystem will have to be added .
In addition to the origin, the soils also differ in size. If the soil particles do not exceed 1 mm in diameter, then there is sand in front of you. Such a soil looks uniform and very aesthetically pleasing, but at the bottom it lies in a dense layer, which can lead to the formation of oxygen-free areas and potentially harmful gases for fish. Soil more than 5 mm in diameter is called pebbles. Such a ground passes water well, as well as food particles, as well as fish waste, which leads to rapid deterioration of water. The most optimal soil particle size for most aquariums is 5-7 mm. It is pebbles of this size that allow water to circulate freely and, at the same time, lay down tight enough so that the overwhelming amount of food and fish waste is deposited on the surface of the soil layer.
The use of soil in the aquarium
It is also worth paying attention to the appearance of the soil, its color. Now you can buy soils of almost any color, which allows you to create unusual design solutions for aquariums. However, it is worth noting that too light, white, gray and beige, Soils adversely affect the color of fish: over time, they fade. Too dark colors can create a strong and not very aesthetic contrast with the aquarium setting.
The optimum thickness of the soil layer for an aquarium is 5-7 cm. A layer of greater thickness will create strong pressure on the glass walls and bottom, and the thinner layer will not be tight enough. The soil can be laid in a dense even layer, but if you wish, you can create an interesting bottom relief using larger stones, snags and special clay decorations for the aquarium, so-called terraces. If you plan to breed fish that feed from the bottom, then it is worthwhile to arrange the soil at a slightly angled angle: a thicker layer at the back wall, a thinner one at the front.
Soil for aquarium do it yourself
The ground in the aquarium is necessary for the fish just as the ground is under our feet. It is there that plants grow, crawling and spawning the various inhabitants of the underwater world. Due to the correctly selected and placed ground in the aquarium, biological balance is maintained. It works as a kind of filter.
What is needed soil for an aquarium?
It is often difficult for beginners to decide on a natural or artificial soil for an aquarium. As a rule, the natural soil is moderately decorative, but creates optimal conditions for the normal functioning of all microorganisms. These are sea pebbles, coarse-grained quartz sand, crushed rocks and minerals (granite, jasper, quartzite, serpentine).
Aquarium soil do it yourself
- Fill in the aquarium a little inert quartz sand.
- Add some "prepared land". Preparation of soil for the aquarium is as follows: two months it is in a flower pot and poured with water from the aquarium. This land is saturated with nutrients (the right bacteria and microorganisms), which will help to establish the right balance.
- Mix the ground with sand. How much soil is needed for an aquarium depends on the size of the reservoir itself, the type of plants, and the preferences of all the inhabitants of the underwater world. Land in our mix a bit. Carefully add some water.
- To create a decorative effect and imitate the natural habitat, install stones in the aquarium. Some species of fish use them for spawning. Not all stones can be placed in an aquarium. It is better to choose granite, basalt and large pebbles. They must be cleaned of dirt and boil.
- On a layer of sand with the addition of land we plant the plants. If there is soil on the roots of plants, the soil cannot be washed out for their best growth.
- Locally, pour a cup of quartz sand into all necessary areas.
- It remains to pour water. In order not to rise turbidity, cover all planted plants package. Carefully pour water on your hand so as not to wash off the whole landscape design. A working filter full of bacteria will immediately make the water completely transparent.
How to prepare the soil for the aquarium :: whether the water in the aquarium from the sea pebbles is contaminated :: Aquarium fish
Tip 1: How to prepare the ground for the aquarium
Aquaria - a very popular hobby. Its essence is to simulate the ecosystem in a closed artificial reservoir. Using his knowledge and capabilities, an aquarist creates an amazing world. Despite the diversity of aquariums, they are organized on the same principle: first put priming, then algae are planted and after that the fish are launched. Therefore, the first thing after you have acquired an aquarium, be engaged in preparing primingbut.
The question "opened a pet shop. Business is not going. What to do?" - 2 answers
1. The main function priminga - it is a substrate for strengthening plants. Some aquarists to facilitate cleaning aquarium, вовсе не пользуются песком или галькой, но, если вы хотите, что аквариум выполнял и декоративную функцию, грунт лучше все-таки использовать. В нем обитают организмы, перерабатывающие мертвую органику в полезные вещества и очищающие аквариум. Помимо этого, в грунтDo not store carbon dioxide reserves that affect the buffer capacity of water.
2. When choosing primingAnd pay attention to the fact that it should not release soluble substances into water, should not be with sharp edges, so as not to injure the fish and should be permeable to water. Usually as primingand use river sand or pebbles. To make sure that priming suits you, it is enough to splash with vinegar. If after that no bubbles or foam appeared on the surface, then this priming can be used.
3. If you decide not to buy priming in the store, and prepare it yourself, go to the nearest stream or river for large river sand. Be sure to clean priming from impurities - sticks, particles of algae, paper.
4. Take a sieve and sift the sand through it. All that passes into the sieve, ruthlessly throw it away, it is still not suitable for use in an aquarium and will only pollute the water. Repeat the procedure several times, then proceed with the washing. primingbut.
5. Rinse thoroughly. priming under warm running water, constantly stirring it. It is necessary that priming completely cleaned of small particles. The better you wash the sand, the faster the water in the aquarium will become transparent, and you can populate the fish there.
6. If desired, priming can disinfect. To do this, rinse it with a weak solution of potassium permanganate, and then do not forget to rinse the sand in running water again.
7. Now priming can be used in an aquarium. Lay it in an even layer of 4-7 centimeters and begin to create your underwater kingdom.
Tip 2: How to prepare water for the aquarium
Aquarium - transparent tank for the constant maintenance of fish. The water in the aquarium plays a huge role for the organisms and plants that live in it. Try to follow the purity of the water and adhere to the recommendations.
You will need
- Aquarium, water and attached instructions.
1. Before planting in a new aquarium, plants and fish should be prepared not only waterbut the aquarium itself. The framed aquarium is thoroughly washed with warm water at room temperature with baking soda or laundry soap. Then it is filled with water at room temperature, depending on the putty for a period of two to three to ten days. After two or three days the procedure should be repeated. Water needs to be changed two or three times until the smell of paint disappears.
2. Organic glass aquariums are washed with warm water and salt or 5% solution of acetic or hydrochloric acid is added. After that, they are again washed with warm water.
When filling out a new aquarium It should be remembered that it is first filled with water to half, and after two or three days water is added so that the top edge remains 4-8 cm. Thereby pressure on the glass aquarium increases gradually, and they do not burst.
Filling a small aquarium with water, a wide plate, a hand, a piece of plywood, and a piece of cardboard should be put under the stream in order not to blur the ground.
3. It is better to fill a large aquarium through a hose. At the same time, the water should fall on a deep plate placed on another plate, standing upside down on the ground.
Sometimes aquarists fill the tank with water immediately after planting, and not before it. In this case, when filling aquarium water will have to use a funnel with a reflective plate.
For aquarium need to find a coating (usually thick glass). It will protect it from dust, will not allow fish to jump out, will prevent too fast cooling and evaporation of water. If the air in the room is too dry, you can use the aquarium to humidify it. In this case, you can not cover the aquarium, but you need to lower the water level so that the fish can not jump out of it.
For air inflow into the aquarium and for rust protection of the steel frame, the coating is not placed on the walls aquarium, and on a small stand height 5-15mm. It can be pieces of an eraser, strips of organic glass, clips of non-oxidizing metal. But the aquarium, which contains fish that can jump well or climb walls through the gap, should be tightly covered.
4. How to make an aquarium beautiful.
Interior design aquarium should be close to the natural habitat of the fish, as we usually create an aquarium in order to have a corner of nature in the apartment. Sometimes it is possible to see blocks of marble imitating a flooded city or divers, from whose helmets air bubbles strike, but all this can be allowed only to a child in the children's room.
An aquarium not for kids should look as simple as possible outside and bright, but naturally inside. It is desirable to hide all devices and technical devices. Generally, choosing jewelry for aquarium, you need to strive, above all, to recreate the natural picture, emphasizing only the beauty of the main inhabitants aquarium - fish and plants.
5. It looks good soil, located steps, and the sand creeping into the water can be fixed with stones or hidden behind them strips of glass.
Trays of flowers, set along the back wall, create a good background. They can be placed steps: in front of plant low plants, and behind them are high.
Another variant of multi-tiered planting is possible: low plants are planted in front, and large ones are behind and from the sides. For lovers of asymmetry, you can suggest to plant in front, almost at the front glass, some large plant, and in the middle or side to put a stone or snag, while throughout the aquarium, let plants of different sizes grow. When choosing, remember that different plants require different lighting. Plants with the same requirements can be grouped at different levels and equip terraces (steps), which are usually made of wood and stones. In the overall composition of your aquarium there should be one or more eye-catching bright spots. The rest of the decorative tools should not be evident, they are better placed in the background.
Sometimes the big picture aquarium It has only one element that attracts attention. It should be a bush of a lush plant, for example, Japanese sagittaries or cryptocorynes. It needs to be planted slightly away from the center. aquarium, so as not to create unpleasant symmetry for the eyes, as well as to make room for feeding. Then around the edges will look good plants with ribbon-like leaves, normal vallisneria or branching elodeya and peristolistnikom that, growing, will create a frame in the background. Several bushes, not cluttering the middle aquarium and foreground, it is possible to arrange isoethis, helix vallisneria, and marcilia; the ground must always have a slope with the deepest place in the free, unplanted part aquariumwhere the dirt will be collected. On the surface of the water is good to let Ritchie, salvinia and a few bushes water cabbage or frog.
6. If you have two or three around aquariumWhen planting plants, it is necessary to think not only about creating an underwater landscape in each of them, but also about the general impression made by the living area as a whole.
The underwater picture, of course, reaches its greatest charm only when the plants start to grow: leaves oriented in relation to light, processes that occupy the most brightly lit areas, give the aquarium landscape greater naturalness.
7. To recreate the river landscape, round stones are used, to imitate rocks, flat stones of irregular shape, fragments without sharp edges. AT aquariumx with fish digging in the ground, large stones serving as grounds for high terraces are placed directly on the bottom, they are sometimes glued with epoxy or cement.
Stones intended for aquariumshould not contain metals and calcium salts. It is best to use stones of basalt origin, as well as granite and some types of sandstone. If the chemical composition of the stone is suspicious, it can be treated with a solution of hydrochloric acid, like gravel.
The roots and branches of the trees look beautiful in the aquarium. For registration, you can use snags, which for a long time lay in running water or peat bogs. The best breeds are alder and willow. You can not put in the aquarium rotten tree, lain some time under a layer of silt. Fully unusable live wood. Roots or branches, even if they were in running water for a long time, should be boiled in a saturated solution of salt before being placed in an aquarium. Such processing disinfects the wood and compacts its structure - the boiled snags become dense, heavy and sink in water.
For tropical decoration aquarium You can use coconut shells, bamboo stalks and reeds.
8. In aquariumx For twilight, nocturnal or territorial fish species, cover should be made for each such fish. To do this, put on the ground snags (again, alder or willow); individual or folded in the form of caves, grottoes large stones; sanding, gravel, stones or driftwood trimming ceramic pipes or pots.
9. For the period of spawning in an aquarium it is necessary to create shelters or a substrate for caviar. These can be flower pots lying on their sides, coconut shells, pottery, cutting glass, synthetic tubes, fibers, tiles, etc. However, these items should not have sharp corners and emit harmful substances in water.
In the fry tag set by females of viviparous breeds of fish you need to hang a piece of glass. It should hang obliquely on aluminum or galvanized steel wire so that its side edges are adjacent to the walls. aquarium, and the bottom had a gap of 3-4 mm, through which the fry would have the opportunity to fall down.
It is impossible often and the more completely to change water in aquarium. For most species of tropical fish water simply update, and this is done no more than once every seven to ten days.
For this rubber hose from the bottom aquarium suck debris and remnants of food, drain no more than 1/3, and preferably 1/5 of the total volume of water, topping up water with the same characteristics as the water in the aquarium. Fresh water should be added in small portions, gradually.
In cold water aquariums when pouring water should not be heated. For warm-water aquariums, it is best to use water 1-2 degrees warmer than water. aquarium.
Partial change of water is carried out in violation of the oxygen regime (if the fish suffocate), while cleaning the bottom and glasses. But you should try to minimize even a partial change of water. When changing water or cleaning aquarium fish do not need to catch.
A complete change of water is a last resort and should be carried out in exceptional cases: in case of illness and death of fish, the appearance of parasitic microorganisms, etc. After a complete change of water, biological equilibrium must be established anew. And with a well-established stable regime, water may not change over the years.
Before you start a fish in the aquarium (or even buy them), find out how these fish get along with each other. And do not immediately run into the aquarium a lot of fish - they are too much upset the biological balance of the aquarium, as a result, they may die.
Before placing the fish in tap water, let it stand at room temperature for at least two days, so that chlorine escapes from it. Water is defended in enameled, glass, clay, plastic dishes for food.